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董必武的“群众路线”法制观研究

发布时间:2018-05-17 02:03  文章来源:笔耕文化传播

  本文选题:董必武 + 群众路线 ; 参考:《西南政法大学》2011年硕士论文


【摘要】:董必武运用马克思主义基本原理,并结合中国国情,提出了系统完备的法制建设主张。在中华人民共和国成立之后,他对新中国的人民民主政权建设和人民民主法制建设贡献卓著。“群众路线”是毛泽东思想活的灵魂,是毛泽东将马克思主义基本原理同中国革命实践相结合的重大理论成果。群众的力量是董必武转变为马克思主义者的核心动力,“群众路线”是他革命生涯所遵循的途径和方法,也是其法律思想的重要内容。 本文除引论和结论外,分为五个部分。 引论:在“五四”运动特别是俄国十月革命爆发后,董必武在上海找到了新的信仰,真正的救国真理——马克思主义。群众的力量是董必武转变为马克思主义者的核心动力,“群众路线”是其革命生涯所遵循的途径和方法。新中国成立后,他依然遵从群众路线,“群众路线”贯穿于董必武的人民民主政权建设思想、立法思想、人民司法思想和守法思想当中。 第一部分:群众的力量是董必武转变为马克思主义者的核心动力。对董必武接受马克思主义并成为中国共产党创始人之一的背景做以介绍。董必武早年受资产阶级民主思潮的启蒙,追随孙中山先生进行民主革命。“五四”运动中,董必武在斗争中接受马克思主义。他从追随孙中山先生进行资产阶级民主革命的民主主义者转变为坚定的共产主义者,并成为中国共产党的创始人之一。这影响他一生的重大转折,是因为十月革命使他充分认识到广大人民群众行动起来的力量——人民群众才是决定历史和革命成败的决定力量。所以,群众的力量是董必武转变为马克思主义者的核心动力。 第二部分:群众路线在董必武人民民主政权建设思想中的体现。董必武在陕甘宁边区民主政权建设中,就指出政府工作要坚定不移的贯彻群众路线,要使政府真正成为群众的政府。政府的权力来源于群众,所以应当密切联系群众,倾听群众的呼声,采纳群众的意见,保护群众的利益,权为民所用;还要接受群众的监督,要把政府的权威建立在群众的信任上。新中国建立后,董必武多次指出,国家机关工作人员是“人民勤务员”,是“长工”;他们应该向人民代表大会报告工作,接受审查和批评,要虚心接受人民群众的批评意见。 第三部分:群众路线在董必武立法思想中的体现。新中国的法律要贯彻好“从群众中来,到群众中去”的原则,要真切地反映人民群众的意志和利益。人民取得政权后,应当及时地把人民的意志用法律表现出来。董必武多次强调,法律制度对于新中国人民民主的重要性和必要性。社会主义法制是人民民主的制度化、法律化,并有效保障民主的执行和遵守。 第四部分:群众路线在董必武人民司法思想中的体现。董必武提出要重视司法工作,并指出要牢固树立人民司法为人民的理念,人民司法是巩固人民民主专政的锐利武器。人民司法工作要一切以人民群众的利益为标准,一切依靠群众、一切为了群众,接受人民群众的监督。群众观点是人民司法的基本观点之一。 第五部分:群众运动与培养人民群众的守法思想。新中国成立初期,群众运动对于解放生产力有着重大的意义,在当时的历史条件下,搞群众运动是完全必要的。但是,如果将群众运动扩大化,就会破坏法制的权威。因此,要保障人民民主秩序,必须加强人民民主法制建设,并培养群众的守法意识。法律由人民制定,反映了人民的意志,保障人民的利益,培养人民群众的守法意识就是巩固人民民主政权。董必武要求共产党员要以身作则,在遵守宪法和一切其它法律中,党员要起模范作用。他要求国家机关工作人员守法,并领导人民群众来守法。 结论:“群众路线”贯穿于董必武的人民民主政权建设思想、立法思想、人民司法思想和守法思想当中,是其法律思想的重要内容。群众路线与“以人为本”的科学发展观具有高度一致的精神传承性。科学发展观体现在法律和法治思想上,就形成了新的以人为本的法律观。人本法律观是新时期马克思主义法律思想中国化的最新成果,董必武法律思想是人本法律观的思想渊源。在深入贯彻落实科学发展观的新的历史背景下,以“群众路线”为视角研究董必武的法律思想,对于当前社会主义法治建设仍有现实意义。
[Abstract]:Dong Biwu, using the basic principles of Marx doctrine, combined with the national conditions of China, put forward a systematic and complete system of legal construction. After the establishment of People's Republic of China, he made a great contribution to the construction of the people's democratic regime and the construction of the people's democratic legal system in the new China. "The mass line" is the soul of Mao Zedong's thought, and Mao Zedong will Mark. The basic principle of the basic principle of thought and the practice of Chinese revolution. The power of the masses is the core power of Dong Biwu's transformation into Marx. "The mass line" is the way and method followed by his revolutionary career, and it is also an important content of his legal thought.
In addition to the introduction and conclusion, this article is divided into five parts.
Introduction: after the outbreak of the "54" movement, especially in the October revolution of Russia, Dong Biwu found a new belief in Shanghai, the true salvation of the nation - Marx doctrine. The power of the masses was the core power of the transformation of Dong Biwu into Marx. "The mass line" was the way and method followed by the life of his revolution. After that, he still follows the mass line, and "the mass line" runs through the ideas of Dong Biwu's people's democratic political power, the legislative thought, the people's judicial thought and the law-abiding thought.
The first part: the strength of the masses is the core power of Dong Biwu's transformation into Marx. The background of Dong Biwu's acceptance of Marx and one of the founders of the Communist Party of China is introduced. Dong Biwu was enlightened by the bourgeois democratic trend of thought in his early years, followed by Mr Sun Zhongshan for the democratic revolution. In the "54" movement, Dong Bi He accepted Marx's doctrine in the struggle. He transformed from Mr Sun Zhongshan to the bourgeois democratic revolution as a firm communist and became one of the founders of the Communist Party of China. This influenced his life's great turn, because the October revolution made him fully aware of the masses of the people. Strength - the masses are the decisive force to decide the success or failure of history and revolution. Therefore, the power of the masses is the core power of Dong Biwu's transformation to Marx.
The second part: the embodiment of the mass line in the construction of Dong Biwu's democratic political power. In the construction of the democratic regime in the Shanxi Gansu Ningxia border region, Dong Biwu pointed out that the government should unswervingly carry out the mass line and make the government truly become the government of the masses. The government's power comes from the masses, so we should closely contact the masses and listen to the group. The voice of the masses, the adoption of the opinions of the masses, the protection of the interests of the masses, the use of the rights for the people, the supervision of the masses, the establishment of the authority of the government on the trust of the masses. After the establishment of the new China, Dong Biwu has repeatedly pointed out that the staff of the state organs are "people's servants" and "long labor"; they should report to the people's Congress. For accepting and reviewing, we should be open-minded and accept the criticisms of the masses.
The third part: the embodiment of the mass line in Dong Biwu's legislative thought. The law of the new China should carry out the principle of "coming from the masses and going to the masses". It is necessary to truly reflect the will and interests of the people. After the people have achieved political power, they should show the will of the people in time. Dong Biwu emphasizes the legal system many times. The importance and necessity of the people's democracy in New China is the institutionalization and legalization of the people's democracy and effective protection of the implementation and compliance of democracy.
The fourth part: the embodiment of the mass line in the judicial thought of the people of Dong Biwu. Dong Biwu proposed to attach importance to the judicial work and point out that the people's judiciary should be firmly established and the people's judicature is a sharp weapon to consolidate the people's democratic dictatorship. The people's judicial work should be the standard of the people and the people, and all depend on the masses. The masses view is one of the basic viewpoints of people's judicature.
The fifth part: the mass movement and the law-abiding thought of the people. In the early period of the founding of new China, the mass movement was of great significance to emancipate the productive forces. Under the historical conditions of that time, it was necessary to carry out the mass movement. However, if the mass movement was expanded, the authority of the legal system would be destroyed. Therefore, the Democratic rank of the people should be guaranteed. In order, we must strengthen the construction of the people's democratic legal system and cultivate the consciousness of the law-abiding people. The law is formulated by the people, reflects the will of the people, guarantees the interests of the people, and fostering the people's awareness of the law is to consolidate the democratic political power of the people. Dong Biwu demands that the Communist Party members should take the body as the principle and the party members should abide by the Constitution and all other laws. He asked the staff of state organs to abide by the law and lead the masses to abide by the law.
Conclusion: "the mass line" runs through Dong Biwu's thought of the people's democratic political power, the legislative thought, the people's judicial thought and the law-abiding thought, which is an important content of its legal thought. The mass line is highly consistent with the "people-oriented" Scientific Outlook on Development. The Scientific Outlook on Development is embodied in the law and the rule of law. On the other hand, a new concept of people based law is formed. The concept of human based law is the latest achievement of the Sinicization of Marx's legal thought in the new period. Dong Biwu's legal thought is the ideological source of the view of human law. Under the new historical background of the implementation of Scientific Outlook on Development, the legal thought of Dong Biwu is studied with the perspective of "the mass line". It is still of practical significance for the construction of socialist rule of law.
【学位授予单位】:西南政法大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2011
【分类号】:D909.2

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