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马克思主义市民社会理论视域下法学思想探究

发布时间:2018-06-15 20:53  文章来源:笔耕文化传播

  本文选题:市民社会交往形式 + 经济基础 ; 参考:《广西师范大学》2012年硕士论文


【摘要】:对市民社会与法关系的问题上的研究,早在古希腊的时候就已经开始,基于古代城邦社会的现实问题上,亚里士多德著有《政治学》,西塞罗著有《论共和国法律》,探讨了法的产生、形成与当时社会组织形态的关系。到了中世纪,法学成了神学的婢女,法依附于教会,服务于教会,整个社会都被人们自己所捏造神秘的“上帝”所控制。文艺复兴、宗教改革之后,资本主义的兴起,哲学家开始关注人的生存问题,以洛克、霍布斯、卢梭、孟德斯鸠为代表,就人在当时社会形态下生存自由的问题来探讨法的产生、形成和发展,法的形式,法与周围的社会环境关系。康德在现象界和本体界二分裂中,通过对纯粹理性和实践理性的批判,以道德哲学为基础,以人的意志自由为核心来探讨法的一般原理。黑格尔将市民社会和政治国家区分开来,他认为二者相互独立的,法是对自由的确认,法是由人的自我意识上升到国家的最高理念,统摄最底层的市民社会,这里的法也不是康德那里的静态的,而是一种动态的辩证运动的法,但这种运动一直只是单纯的人的意志的运动。 在《黑格尔法哲学批判导言》中,马克思批判了黑格尔的市民社会理论,他认为黑格尔把国家与市民社会的关系搞反了,是主词和宾词主谓颠倒,正如恩格斯所说:“决不是国家制约和决定市民社会,而是市民社会制约和决定国家”。马克思把市民社会比喻为“全部历史真正的发源地和舞台”,把市民社会作为人类历史发展的现实基础,市民社会是马克思开始步入唯物史观的一个逻辑起点。关于对市民社会的定义,古今中外各有不同,在《德意志意识形态》中,马克思从生产力和生产关系的关系的角度上来定义市民社会,他认为:“在过去一切历史阶段上受生产力制约、同时也制约生产力的交往形式,就是市民社会”,由于马克思所处时代是资本主义时代,所以,从社会的具体形态来讲市民社会是一种商品经济社会。在马克思市民社会理论中,市民社会是作为一种经济基础,对意识形态和政治结构上层建筑具有一定的决定作用。法作为上层建筑中的一种国家意识形态,法的产生应源于市民社会,发展于市民社会,法的实践活动的场所也是在现实的市民社会,市民社会是马克思法学观得以确立的基石。对法的一些问题解释也不应该从人类精神本身去理解,必须要深入现实的物质经济生活来解答。 本文立足于马克思主义理论相关文本的解读,站在历史唯物主义哲学观的高度上,以马克思主义的市民社会理论为哲学视角,从马克思主义相关文本中整理出其法学思想的基本内容。马克思主义的法学思想主要体现在《黑格尔法哲学批判》、《1844年经济学哲学手稿》、《德意志意识形态》、《哲学贫困》和《共产党宣言》中,本文通过五部分来分析,探究其法学思想。 本文第一部分主要论述马克思主义市民社会理论的基本内容。介绍马克思主义市民社会的理论渊源,马克思市民社会的哲学范畴、概念界定及其特征,指出市民社会对法学思想形成的重要性,市民社会对法作用。 本文第二部分主要是以马克思主义市民社会理论为基础来论述法的形成和发展。指出市民社会决定法的哲学原则,法产生于市民社会,法反映市民社会的经济关系,体现国家意志,介绍法在不同时期不同社会形态的形式和相关特征。 本文第三部分主要是探究在市民社会中法的价值。论述法的价值的形成也是市民社会发展的内在要求,分析法的价值结构,自由,平等是法的两种重要的价值形式在市民社会的体现,这又是由市民社会发展本身决定。 本文第四部分依据马克思主义法学思想,结合现代法制理论,简单介绍法在市民社会运行的内在机制。 本文第五部分结合我国传统法治观念,简要论述马克思主义市民社会理论视域下法学思想探究的当代价值,以及对我国法治建设的理论参考价值。 在研读马克思主义经典原著的过程中,我们会发现马克思和恩格斯在对法的论述过程中,始终没脱离当时所处的市民社会环境,也正是有了市民社会这个物质基础,才是他们的法具有了科学性、可行性、现实性。这也是由他们的唯物史观所决定的,市民社会理论使法具有了唯物史观的理论基础,整个法学思想又是其唯物史观的再现。
[Abstract]:The research on the relationship between the civil society and the law has already begun in ancient Greece. Based on the reality of the ancient city state, Aristotle wrote "the political science", and Cicero had a "theory of the Republic", discussing the emergence of the law and forming the relationship with the organizational form of the society at that time. To the middle ages, law became God. The maidservant of learning was attached to the church, serving the church, and the whole society was controlled by the mysterious "God" that was invented by the people themselves. After the Renaissance, after the reformation, the rise of capitalism, the philosopher began to pay attention to the problem of human existence, represented by Rock, Hobbes, Rousseau, and Montesquieu. The question of freedom discusses the generation, formation and development of the law, the form of law, the relationship between the law and the surrounding social environment. In the two divisions of the phenomenal and the noumenon circles, Kant explores the general principle of law through the criticism of pure reason and practical reason, the moral philosophy as the basis, and the freedom of the will of man as the core. Hagel is the civil society and the general principle of the law. The political state distinguishes. He thinks that the two are independent of each other. The law is the confirmation of freedom. The law is the highest idea of the man's self consciousness and the lowest civil society. The law here is not the static of Kant, but a dynamic dialectic movement. But this kind of movement has been only a simple person. The movement of will.
In the introduction to the criticism of Hagel's philosophy of law, Marx criticized Hagel's theory of civil society. He believed that Hagel reversed the relationship between the state and the civil society. It was the reverse of the relationship between the state and the civil society. As Engels said, "it was not the state restriction and determination of the community, but the civil society and the country." Mark Thinking of the civil society as "the real birthplace and stage of all history", taking the civil society as the realistic basis for the development of human history, civil society is a logical starting point for Marx to begin to step into the materialist conception of history. The definition of the civil society is different from ancient to modern and modern. In the "German Ideology >", Marx was born from birth. The relationship between productivity and production relations defines a civil society. He thinks, "in the past all the historical stages were restricted by the productive forces, and the form of interaction that also restricts the productive forces is civil society." since Marx's era is a capitalist era, the civil society is a kind of society. In the theory of Marx's civil society, civil society, as an economic basis, has a certain decisive role in the superstructure of ideology and political structure. As a national ideology in the superstructure, law originates from the civil society, the development of the civil society, the practice of law. It is also a real civil society. Civil society is the cornerstone of the establishment of Marx's view of law. Some problems in the interpretation of the law should not be understood from the human spirit itself, and we must answer the realistic material and economic life.
This article, based on the interpretation of the related text of Marx's theory, stands on the height of the philosophical view of historical materialism, and takes the theory of Marx's civil society as the philosophical perspective, and collects the basic content of his jurisprudence from the related texts of Marx doctrine. The legal thought of Marx is mainly embodied in Hagel's philosophy of law. In the five parts of the five part, the article analyzes the legal thought of the law in the five part.
The first part of this article mainly discusses the basic content of the theory of Marx's civil society, introduces the theoretical origin of the civil society of Marx, the philosophical category of Marx's civil society, the definition and its characteristics, and points out the importance of the civil society to the formation of the legal thought, and the role of the city and the people in the law.
The second part of this article mainly discusses the formation and development of the law on the basis of the theory of Marx's civil society. It points out the philosophical principles of the civil society decision law, the law is born in the civil society, the law reflects the economic relations of the civil society, embodies the will of the state, and introduces the forms and the related features of the different social forms in different periods.
The third part of this article is mainly to explore the value of law in the civil society. The formation of the value of the law is also the inherent requirement of the development of the civil society. The value structure of the analysis law, freedom and equality are the two important forms of value in the civil society, which is determined by the development of the city and the people.
The fourth part of this article briefly introduces the internal mechanism of law in civil society based on Marx's jurisprudence and modern legal theory.
The fifth part of this paper, combined with the traditional concept of the rule of law in China, briefly discusses the contemporary value of the exploration of legal thought in the view of Marx's theory of civil society and the theoretical reference value for the construction of the rule of law in China.
In the process of studying the classics of Marx's doctrine, we will find that Marx and Engels have never been divorced from the social environment of the civil society and the material basis of civil society in the course of the discussion of the law, and that is the scientific, feasible and realistic nature of their law. This is also the historical materialism of them. The theory of civil society has made the law have the theoretical foundation of historical materialism, and the whole legal thought is also the representation of its materialist conception of history.
【学位授予单位】:广西师范大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2012
【分类号】:D90

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