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美国刑事和解中的保密义务及其启示

发布时间:2019-01-09 19:07
【摘要】:自20世纪70年代以来,刑事和解计划在美国得以广泛推广,1994年美国律师协会(American Bar Association)认可刑事和解、1995年全国被害人援助组织(The National Organization for Victim Assistance)批准恢复性社区司法模式,刑事和解作为一项基本法律制度在美国实现了合法化。作为现代刑事制度转型过程中的产物,刑事和解在中国亦被广泛应用于刑事案件领域。虽然我国现行刑事诉讼法并没有明文规定刑事和解制度,但是刑事和解实践在部分省市盛行,对在法律上规定和解制度的呼声也越来越高。作为刑事和解制度的基本内容之一,保密义务在整个制度中的意义显得格外重大。但就现状而言,我国刑事理论界与司法实务界在推广刑事和解制度过程中均缺乏保密义务意识。刑事和解制度中规定保密义务有利于保障加害人的宪法权利、提高和解效益、保证调解员的中立与公正以及促进刑事司法“调审分离”制度化,如果没有保密制度,被害人与加害人之间就不能进行有意义的对话与交流,最终必然导致和解制度的流产,所以在构建我国刑事和解制度时必须对保密义务这一要素加以重视。在推广刑事和解过程中,美国相关法律法规以及判例都对保密义务作了较多较完善的规定,研究美国刑事和解中的保密义务对构建及完善我国刑事和解保密制度有重要借鉴意义。文章以美国的刑事和解保密制度为蓝本,采用历史分析、案件分析和比较分析的方法,从刑法学、犯罪学、刑事政策学、刑事诉讼法学等多学科相结合的角度对美国刑事和解中的保密义务进行全面的分析,总结并借鉴其有益经验,提出对构建我国刑事和解保密制度的启示。文章首先对刑事和解保密义务进行概述,阐述刑事和解的基本理论和保密义务的概念、范围以及其正当性;然后通过分析美国规定保密义务的法律法规以及和解保密判例,进一步了解美国的保密义务体系;最后归纳总结美国刑事和解中的保密义务对我国刑事和解制度构建的启示,提出构建我国刑事和解保密制度的基本设想,包括保密义务的主体、享有保密特权的信息范围及其例外以及违反保密义务的法律后果。
[Abstract]:Since the 1970s, criminal reconciliation programs have been widely promoted in the United States. The American Bar Association (American Bar Association) recognized criminal reconciliation in 1994, and the National victim Assistance Organization (The National Organization for Victim Assistance) approved the restorative community justice model in 1995. As a basic legal system, criminal reconciliation has been legalized in the United States. As a result of the transformation of modern criminal system, criminal reconciliation is also widely used in the field of criminal cases in China. Although the current criminal procedure law of our country does not explicitly stipulate the criminal reconciliation system, the practice of criminal reconciliation prevails in some provinces and cities, and the voice of prescribing the reconciliation system in the law is becoming more and more high. As one of the basic contents of the criminal reconciliation system, the duty of confidentiality is of great significance in the whole system. However, as far as the present situation is concerned, both the criminal theorists and the judicial practitioners lack the sense of confidentiality obligation in the process of promoting the criminal reconciliation system. The obligation of confidentiality in the system of criminal reconciliation is conducive to safeguarding the constitutional rights of perpetrators, improving the efficiency of reconciliation, ensuring the neutrality and impartiality of mediators and promoting the institutionalization of the separation of criminal justice from trial, if there is no system of confidentiality, There is no meaningful dialogue and communication between the victim and the perpetrator, which will inevitably lead to the miscarriage of the reconciliation system. Therefore, we must attach importance to the key element of the obligation of confidentiality in the construction of the criminal reconciliation system in our country. In the process of promoting criminal reconciliation, the relevant laws and regulations and precedents of the United States have made more and more perfect provisions on the obligation of confidentiality. The study of the secrecy obligation in American criminal reconciliation is of great significance to the construction and perfection of our criminal reconciliation secrecy system. Based on the American criminal reconciliation and secrecy system, the article adopts the methods of historical analysis, case analysis and comparative analysis, from the aspects of criminal law, criminology, criminal policy. This paper makes a comprehensive analysis of the obligation of secrecy in criminal reconciliation in the United States from the angle of the combination of criminal procedure law and other disciplines, summarizes and draws lessons from its beneficial experience, and puts forward the enlightenment to the construction of the secrecy system of criminal reconciliation in our country. Firstly, the article summarizes the obligation to keep secret of criminal reconciliation, expounds the basic theory of criminal reconciliation and the concept, scope and legitimacy of the obligation of confidentiality. Then through the analysis of the laws and regulations of the United States to provide confidentiality obligations as well as conciliatory confidentiality cases to further understand the confidentiality obligations of the United States system; Finally, it summarizes the enlightenment of the secrecy obligation in the criminal reconciliation of the United States to the construction of the criminal reconciliation system of our country, and puts forward the basic idea of constructing the secrecy system of the criminal reconciliation in our country, including the subject of the duty of confidentiality. The scope of confidential information and its exceptions, as well as the legal consequences of breach of confidentiality obligations.
【学位授予单位】:湘潭大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2011
【分类号】:D971.2;D925.2

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