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有关立法后评估的若干思考

发布时间:2019-01-11 21:21  文章来源:笔耕文化传播
【摘要】:立法质量密切地联系着人们社会生产生活的走向,为社会发展提供支持或制造阻碍。过去,我国对立法质量的理解大多停留在“有法可依、有法必依”的层面,注重对法律执行的监督(如人大每年开展的“执法检查”工作),重视司法、执法和公民守法的过程,却忽视了对法律本身科学性、合法性、合理性的考量。重视“有法可依、有法必依”的理念并没有错,特别是在我国进行法治化建设仅仅三十年时间的前提下。但“皮之不附,毛将焉在”,如果我们不考虑法律条文本身是否科学合理、符合社会发展的需要,一味地追求法律的严格执行并要求得到人们普遍的遵守并不符合法治国家“良法之治”的状态。法治是指“已制定的法律得到普遍服从,而得到普遍服从的法律又是制定的良好的法律。”若以此作为标尺,现代法治国家对法律本身提出了更高的要求,法律条文的质量是一国进入法治状态的基石,是一个国家的文明程度和法治水平最直接的表现形式。本文以提高立法质量为出发点,从理论和实践两个方面对立法后评估工作进行分析研究,以理论指导实践,再从实践中反思理论,为立法后评估制度化的探索提出自己的构想。 本文共分为三个部分。第一部分主要探讨立法后评估的基本理论,界定立法后评估的内涵提出科学的立法后评估应然理论,立法后评估是系统的工程,需要明确的评估目的、对象、主体和标准并借助科学的评估方法才能得以顺利完成。通过对基本理论的阐述旨在为第二部分国外实证研究以及贵州省立法后评估个案评析的引入提供理论基础。第二部分主要是对立法后评估实证研究。首先从国外经验入手,介绍国外立法后评估的发展沿革,落脚于经验借鉴。后对我国立法后评估的十年发展历程进行了梳理,并对《贵州省实施中华人民共和国水法办法》的立法后评估工作进行个案分析研究。通过国内两节的介绍及讨论,提出我国立法后评估存在的不足并提出制度化的呼吁。讨论用建立统一的立法后评估制度的方法解决存在问题的可能性。第三部分是笔者对制度化呼吁的回应,此部分以立法后评估的基础理论为指导,从贵州省工作的实践经验为出发点,提出将立法后评估工作制度化的构想,针对评估的启动、过程及结果回应尝试性的进行了标准化程序设计。希望通过将该项工作制度化,标准化操作,解决立法后评估在实践中的问题,使其更好的发挥作用。
[Abstract]:The quality of legislation is closely related to the trend of social production and life, providing support or creating obstacles for social development. In the past, most of our country's understanding of the quality of legislation has stayed at the level of "there is a law to be followed, and there is a need to abide by the law." China pays attention to the supervision of the enforcement of the law (such as the "law enforcement inspection" carried out by the National people's Congress every year) and attaches importance to the administration of justice. The process of enforcing the law and abiding by the law ignores the consideration of the science, legitimacy and rationality of the law itself. It is not wrong to attach importance to the idea of "there are laws to be followed, and there are laws to be obeyed", especially under the premise of only 30 years of construction of rule of law in our country. However, if we do not consider whether the legal provisions themselves are scientific and reasonable, they will be in line with the needs of social development. Blindly pursuing the strict enforcement of the law and requiring people to abide by it generally does not conform to the state of "good law governance" in a country ruled by law. The rule of law means that "the law that has been made is generally obedient, and the law which is generally obeyed is a good law." If the rule of law is taken as a yardstick, the modern country ruled by law puts forward higher requirements to the law itself. The quality of the legal provisions is the cornerstone of a country entering the state of the rule of law, and the most direct form of expression of a country's civilization and level of the rule of law. In order to improve the quality of legislation, this paper analyzes and studies the post-legislative evaluation from the aspects of theory and practice, guides the practice with theory, and then reflects on the theory from practice, and puts forward its own idea for the exploration of institutionalization of post-legislative evaluation. This paper is divided into three parts. The first part mainly discusses the basic theory of post-legislative evaluation, defines the connotation of post-legislative evaluation and puts forward a scientific theory of post-legislative evaluation. The subject and standard can be successfully completed with the help of scientific evaluation methods. The purpose of this paper is to provide a theoretical basis for the introduction of the second part of the empirical study abroad and the case analysis of Guizhou Province's post-legislative evaluation. The second part is an empirical study on post-legislative evaluation. First of all, from the experience of foreign countries, introduce the development of foreign post-legislative evaluation, and settle on the experience. After that, the author combs the ten years' development course of the post-legislative evaluation in China, and makes a case study on the post-legislative evaluation of the implementation of the measures of Water Law of the people's Republic of China in Guizhou Province. Through the introduction and discussion of the two domestic sections, this paper points out the shortcomings of the post-legislative evaluation in our country and puts forward an appeal for institutionalization. This paper discusses the possibility of establishing a uniform post-legislative evaluation system to solve the existing problems. The third part is the author's response to the appeal of institutionalization. This part is guided by the basic theory of post-legislative evaluation, starting from the practical experience of Guizhou Province, puts forward the idea of institutionalizing the post-legislative evaluation, aiming at the start of evaluation. The process and result response were tentatively designed to standardize the program. It is hoped that by institutionalizing and standardizing the work, we can solve the problem of post-legislative evaluation in practice and make it play a better role.
【学位授予单位】:华东师范大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2011
【分类号】:D920.0

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