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论肖像权财产利益保护的法律适用

发布时间:2018-06-04 01:24  文章来源:笔耕文化传播

  本文选题:肖像权 + 财产利益 ; 参考:《河南大学》2013年硕士论文


【摘要】:根据传统民法理论,肖像权属于人格权,具有专属性、不可转让性和不可继承性,然而这一传统理论正面临着现代“肖像权商业化利用”现象的挑战。对肖像的商业化利用,使得肖像权由原来的防御权逐渐发展成为一种利用权,肖像权显现出财产价值。随着市场经济的发展和大众传媒的普及,一方面,,自然人尤其是名人将自己的肖像授权他人进行商业使用(包括自然人死亡后,其合法继承人将死者肖像授权他人商业使用),以获得经济利益;另一方面,在司法实务中未经许可而擅自使用他人(包括死者)的肖像用于商业目的的案件也在不断增多。现实生活中大多数侵犯肖像权的案件与商业目的相关,因此,本文的研究范围就限定在肖像权商业化使用过程中产生的相关法律问题。 我国法院在审理肖像权财产利益的案件时,从案件的定性到损害赔偿的计算,在法律适用中存在以下四个方面的问题:第一,对是否承认和保护肖像权财产利益的态度不一:大部分法院不承认,少数法院承认,还有部分法院未作表态;第二,在对肖像权人进行赔偿时,过分倚重精神损害赔偿,而忽略了财产损害赔偿;第三,在承认肖像权财产利益的判决中,确定财产损害赔偿的法律依据和计算标准不统一;第四,对死者肖像财产利益是否可以继承的态度迥异。同样的案件不同的法院会出现不同的审判结果。之所以出现上述问题,其原因在于:首先,我国《民法通则》及司法解释未承认肖像权财产利益;其次,《侵权责任法》第20条对“财产损失”的界定不明确,在计算损失时缺乏可操作性;再次,现行立法对死者肖像财产利益是否可以继承缺乏规定,导致对死者肖像财产利益保护不足;最后,我国学界对肖像权财产利益的法律属性界定不清,一部分学者采人格权理论,另一部分学者采财产权理论,在理论研究上仍旧存在争议。 在面对侵害肖像权财产利益案件时要正确适用法律,就应当明确肖像权财产利益的法律属性。与一般的财产利益、肖像权精神利益相比,肖像权财产利益具有很强的人格依附性,它是肖像权精神利益派生的利益,并非肖像权的主要内容,并且它具有地域性、不稳定性、可反复使用性的特点;另外,肖像权财产利益在一定程度上可以与肖像权人相分离,可以通过肖像权授权许可使用合同或继承等方式来实现;未经许可而商业利用他人肖像的行为,可能会同时侵害肖像权财产利益和肖像权精神利益。在对学界关于肖像权财产利益的法律性质的观点进行整合后,笔者对其进行了界定,采纳“肖像权权能扩张说”,主张将肖像权的权能进行扩张使其包含使用权能,这就决定了肖像权的内容中包含精神利益和财产利益两部分。通过对国外肖像权财产利益法律适用的现状进行分析,主要有德国和美国两种保护模式。德国法的一元权利模式是通过扩张既有的法律概念来保护新的利益,将肖像权财产利益的保护问题纳入人格权框架内解决,这是对人格权利益的发展。美国法的公开权模式是对精神利益和财产利益明确划分为基础,由隐私权保护肖像权精神利益,不得转让和继承;由公开权保护肖像权财产利益,允许转让和继承。 借鉴德国和美国两国的法律适用模式中各自的特点,笔者提出完善我国在肖像权财产利益法律适用的建议:第一,应当明确肖像权财产利益可以通过肖像权许可使用合同进行转让,该合同具有准物权效力,可以设立对抗第三人商业化利用的使用权;第二,将《民法通则》第100条中“以营利为目的”定位为确定肖像权损害赔偿数额的依据,而非肖像权侵权责任的构成要件;第三,将《侵权责任法》第20条中的“财产损失”进行扩大解释使其包含肖像权财产利益的损失,并且完善财产损害赔偿额的计算方法,赋予肖像权人选择权;第四,将财产损害赔偿作为侵害肖像权财产利益的首要的救济手段,同时发挥精神损害赔偿的调节功能,以平衡两者的适用;第五,将权益侵害型不当得利纳入《民法通则》第92条的适用范围,以充分保护肖像权人的财产利益;第六,继承法应明确区分死者肖像的财产利益和精神利益,规定死者肖像财产利益可以继承,并且确定其保护期限为死者死后50年。
[Abstract]:According to the traditional civil law theory, the right of portrait belongs to the right of personality, which has special property, non transferability and uninheritability. However, this traditional theory is facing the challenge of the commercialized use of the right of portrait. The commercial utilization of portraits makes the right of portrait develop from the original defense right gradually to a kind of use right, the right of portrait is obvious. With the development of the market economy and the popularity of the mass media, on the one hand, the natural people, especially the celebrities, have empowered others to carry out commercial use (including the death of natural persons, the legal heirs authorizing the portraits of the deceased to authorize the commercial use of others) to gain economic benefits; on the other hand, in judicial practice, it has not been used in judicial practice. The license and the unauthorized use of others (including the deceased) is also increasing in commercial purposes. In real life, most of the cases of violation of portraits are related to commercial purposes. Therefore, the scope of this study is limited to the relevant legal issues arising from the commercialized use of the right to portrait.
In the case of hearing the interests of the portrait right and property in our country, there are four problems in the application of the law from the nature of the case to the calculation of the compensation for damages. First, there are different attitudes to the recognition and protection of the interests of the portrait right and property: Most courts do not admit it, a few courts admit it, and some courts have not made a statement; Second, in the compensation of the portraiture, the excessive reliance on spiritual damage compensation, and the neglect of the compensation for property damage; third, in the recognition of the interests of the portrait right and property, to determine the legal basis of property damage compensation is not unified; fourth, the deceased portrait property interests can inherit the same attitude. The reasons for this problem are: first, the general rules of the civil law and the judicial interpretation do not recognize the interests of the portrait right and property; secondly, the twentieth article of the tort liability law is not clear about the definition of "property loss", and the lack of maneuverability in calculating the loss; and again, the present The legislation on the interest of the deceased's portrait property can not be inherited, which leads to the lack of protection of the interests of the deceased's portrait property; finally, the legal attributes of the interests of the portraits and property are not clearly defined by the academic circles in our country, and some scholars have adopted the theory of personality right, and the other part of the scholars' theory of property rights is still controversial in the theoretical study.
In the face of the right to apply the law when dealing with the property interests of the portrait right, it should be clear that the legal property of the property interests of the portrait right should be clearly defined. Compared with the general property interests and the spiritual interests of the portrait right, the interest of the portrait right and property has a strong personality attachment, which is the benefit derived from the spiritual interests of the portrait right, and is not the main content of the portrait right. And it has the characteristics of regionalism, instability and reusability; in addition, the interests of the portrait right and property can be separated from the portraiture to a certain extent, and can be realized by means of contract or inheritance by authorizing permission of the right of portrait; the act of commercial use of the portrait of others without permission may infringe the portrait right at the same time. After the integration of the legal nature of the interests of portrait right and property in the academic circles, the author defines it, adopts the "right of portrait right and power expansion", and advocates the expansion of the power of the right of portrait to include the use of power, which determines the spiritual interests of the right of portrait. The two part of the property interests. Through the analysis of the present situation of the legal application of the property interests of the right and property in foreign countries, there are two modes of protection in Germany and the United States. The one mode of the German law is to protect the new interests through the expansion of the existing legal concepts, and to bring the protection of the interests of the portrait right and property into the framework of the personality right. It is the development of the interests of the right of personality. The mode of public right of the American law is based on the clear division of the spiritual interests and property interests, and the right of privacy protects the spiritual interests of the portrait right, and can not be transferred and inherited; the right to publicity protects the interests of the portraits and property, allowing the transfer and inheritance.
Drawing on the respective characteristics of the legal application mode of Germany and the United States, the author puts forward some suggestions to improve the legal application of the property interests of the portrait right in China. First, it should be clear that the interests of the portrait right and property can be transferred through the license of the portrait right, which has the validity of quasi real right and can set up the commercialization of third persons. The use of the right to use; second, the "general rules" of the "general rules" of the 100th "for the purpose of profit" as the basis for determining the amount of compensation for the right to the right of portrait, and not the constitutive requirements of the right of infringement of the right of portrait; third, to expand the interpretation of the "property loss" in the law of tort and twentieth to include the loss of the interests of the portrait right and property, And improve the calculation method of the compensation amount of property damage, give the right to choose the right of portraits. Fourth, make the property damage compensation as the primary remedy for the benefit of the right and property of the portrait right and property, and give play to the regulating function of the compensation for the mental damage, in order to balance the application of the two. Fifth, bring the infringement of rights and interests into the general rule of the civil law ninth. The scope of application of the 2 is to fully protect the interests of the portraits of the portraits. Sixth, the inheritance law should clearly distinguish the property interests and spiritual interests of the portraits of the deceased, stipulate that the interests of the deceased's portrait and property can be inherited and the duration of its protection is 50 years after the death of the deceased.
【学位授予单位】:河南大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2013
【分类号】:D923

【参考文献】

相关期刊论文 前1条

1 王泽鉴;;人格权保护的课题与展望——人格权的性质及构造:精神利益与财产利益的保护[J];人大法律评论;2009年01期



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