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刑罚社会化背景下我国社区矫正种类和执行方式的完善

发布时间:2018-09-14 20:34  文章来源:笔耕文化传播
【摘要】:20世纪50年代以来,西方一些国家就开始了刑罚社会化问题的研究,20世纪60年代后期以来,减少监禁刑特别是短期监禁刑一直成为欧洲各国刑事政策的核心目标。1990年,联合国第8届预防犯罪与罪犯处遇大会上通过了《联合国非拘禁措施最低限度标准规则》。2000年,欧洲委员会通过了《成员国部长委员会关于改进实施欧洲社区制裁和措施的规则(2000)22号建议》,都对非监禁措施提出了要求。由此可见,世界各国的刑罚执行方式正经历着从以监禁刑为主到以非监禁刑为主的转变,缓刑、假释、社区服务等社区矫正方式在西方国家已得到广泛适用,刑罚社会化已成为国际刑事司法发展的主要方向。 刑罚社会化可以有效地避免监禁刑的弊端,有利于罪犯重新回归社会,顺利实现再社会化。为回应刑罚社会化的行刑趋势,充分发挥社区矫正的功能,我国需进一步发展和完善现有的社区矫正制度。本文以我国的社区矫正工作现状为切入点,以上海市嘉定区十年以来的社区矫正工作数据为例,分析了实践中社区矫正的适用情况及所存在的不足。主要表现为社区矫正的种类单一且适用面较窄;执行方式缺乏多样性、针对性,刑罚惩罚性较弱;刑罚易科制度缺失;禁止令执行难以到位等问题。针对这些问题,笔者从实务的角度分析了问题的成因,并通过比较研究的方式,介绍了国外的社区矫正立法和实践,在此基础上,借鉴其中的合理成分,提出完善我国社区矫正制度的建议,主要有三个方面:一是立足现有缓刑、假释、暂予监外执行制度框架,深入发掘监禁刑非监禁执行方式的制度价值,进一步扩大适用范围,丰富缓刑、假释的类型,规范具体执行程序;二是进一步完善我国唯一的非监禁刑主刑刑种——管制刑,,建立管制易科制度,并创设新的非监禁刑主刑刑种,即建立青少年管护令制度;三是进一步完善和丰富社区矫正执行措施。如进一步扩大禁止令的适用范围,细化禁止令的具体内容,并引入宵禁制度,设置类似中途住所等的过渡中转制度,设立家中监禁制度,建立社区矫正担保制度,使社区矫正的执行方式更具多样性、灵活性和针对性,既能体现刑罚的惩罚性,又能实现社区矫正的功能。 去年全国人大常委会通过关于废止有关劳动教养法律规定的决定,并指出要健全社区矫正制度,社区矫正工作迎来了千载难逢的历史机遇,因此,应通过完善现有的社区矫正种类和执行方式,进一步健全符合我国国情的社区矫正制度,推动社区矫正工作取得新发展。
[Abstract]:Since the 1950s, some western countries have begun to study the socialization of punishment. Since the late 1960s, reducing imprisonment, especially short-term imprisonment, has been the core goal of the criminal policies of European countries. The eighth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and offenders adopted the United Nations Standard minimum rules for Non-custodial measures 2000, The Council of Europe adopted recommendation No. 22 of the Committee of Ministers of the member States on improving the implementation of sanctions and measures in European Communities (2000), both of which require non-custodial measures. It can be seen from this that the way of penalty execution in the world is undergoing a transformation from imprisonment to non-imprisonment. Probation, parole, community service and other forms of community correction have been widely applied in western countries. The socialization of penalty has become the main direction of the development of international criminal justice. The socialization of punishment can effectively avoid the malpractice of imprisonment, help criminals to return to society and realize social re-socialization smoothly. In order to respond to the trend of punishment socialization and give full play to the function of community correction, our country needs to further develop and perfect the existing community correction system. Taking the current situation of community correction in our country as the starting point and taking the data of community correction in Jiading District of Shanghai as an example, this paper analyzes the application and shortcomings of community correction in practice. The main performance of community correction is the single category and narrow application; the lack of diversity of execution, targeted punishment is weak; the penalty system is missing; the execution of prohibition order is difficult to implement and so on. In view of these problems, the author analyzes the causes of the problems from the point of view of practice, and introduces the legislation and practice of community correction in foreign countries by means of comparative study. The paper puts forward some suggestions to perfect the system of community correction in our country: first, based on the existing probation, parole, temporary execution outside prison system framework, deeply explore the system value of non-custodial execution mode of imprisonment, and further expand the scope of application. Enriching the types of probation and parole, standardizing the specific execution procedures; second, further perfecting the only type of non-custodial punishment in our country, that is, the main punishment of control, establishing the system of control and change, and creating a new type of main punishment of non-custodial punishment, The third is to further improve and enrich the implementation measures of community correction. Such as further expanding the scope of application of the prohibition order, refining the specific contents of the prohibition order, introducing a curfew system, setting up a transitional transit system similar to a halfway house, setting up a system of home imprisonment, and establishing a community correction guarantee system. To make the execution of community correction more diverse, flexible and targeted, can not only reflect the punitive penalty, but also achieve the function of community correction. Last year, the standing Committee of the National people's Congress adopted a decision on repealing the relevant legal provisions on re-education through labour, and pointed out that to improve the system of community correction, the work of community correction has ushered in a historic opportunity of once-in-a-lifetime. It is necessary to further perfect the system of community correction in accordance with the conditions of our country by perfecting the existing types and modes of community correction and to promote the new development of the work of community correction.
【学位授予单位】:华东政法大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2014
【分类号】:D926.8

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