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中世纪晚期英法法官声誉迥异的原因及其影响

发布时间:2018-07-11 21:49  文章来源:笔耕文化传播

  本文选题:中世纪 + 法官 ; 参考:《黑龙江大学》2009年硕士论文


【摘要】: 英国与法国,作为世界法律史上占据着重要席位的两个国家,一个奉行有法官造法之名的普通法传统,另一个则实行议会立法、推出了近代最富影响力的《法国民法典》,但是却湮没了法官在公众视线中的光环,这种差异表现在当今,成就了英国以司法中心主义的法治模式和法国以立法为中心的法治模式。究其原因,并不能在中世纪的早期找到答案。因为在中世纪早期,同是奉承日耳曼法律传统的国家,英法两国法官的工作方式和司法依据大致相同,所确立的形象和作用也几无二致。只是在之后的历史发展中才开始奠定了各自不同的口碑之基。 12--13世纪英格兰的司法改革促进了中央集权化的进程、推动了法官日益职业化,至13世纪,产生了专门负责司法工作的职业法官,垄断了司法审判权,并且在实际工作当中奠定了普通法的基础,实现了王国内法律的统一。同时,英国法官的司法独立和法律至上的意识、过硬的法律素养和社会精英地位,在对抗王权的专制、保卫国民的自由的过程中,发挥了巨大的作用,美誉加身,直接推动了近代英国司法中心的法治模式形成;相比较来看,法国的法官在中世纪代表了特权等级的利益,手中除了掌握司法权力,还常常染指立法权并且插手行政管理事务,甚至以阻碍政府采取有益革新的形象示人。法国法官的这种司法专横给他招来如潮恶评,最后在大革命中被打击和压制,对近代法国立法中心法治模式的形成造成了种种逆反性影响。 本文旨在通过梳理英法两国法官在中世纪晚期的良莠定位所系的特定的历史背景,结合有关史实,分析该司法角色在各自国家的法治进程中发生作用的方式和影响。
[Abstract]:Britain and France, two countries with important seats in the history of world law, one followed the common law tradition in the name of judges and the other legislated in Parliament. The French Civil Code, the most influential one in modern times, was introduced, but it obliterated the aura of judges in the public eye. It has achieved the rule of law model of judicial centralism in Britain and the legislation-centered rule of law mode in France. The reason is that no answer can be found in the early Middle Ages. In the early Middle Ages, the same country flattered the Germanic legal tradition, the working methods and the judicial basis of the judges in Britain and France were roughly the same, and the image and function of the judges were almost the same. The judicial reform in England in the 12th and 13th centuries promoted the process of centralization of power, promoted the professionalization of judges, and became more professional in the 13th century. Professional judges specialized in judicial work were produced, monopolized judicial jurisdiction, and laid the foundation of common law in practical work, and realized the unification of the law in the king's country. At the same time, the British judges' sense of judicial independence and the supremacy of the law, excellent legal literacy and social elite status played a great role in the process of fighting against the autocracy of Wang Quan and defending the freedom of the people. In contrast, French judges represented the interests of privilege in the Middle Ages. In addition to holding judicial power, French judges often got involved in legislative power and administrative affairs. It is even presented as a hindrance to the government's adoption of useful innovations. The judicial arbitrariness of the French judge brought him a lot of bad comments and was finally attacked and suppressed during the Great Revolution, which caused various adverse effects on the formation of the rule of law model in the modern French legislative center. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the way and influence of the judicial role in the process of ruling by law in their respective countries by combing the specific historical background of the judges of Britain and France in the late Middle Ages and combining the relevant historical facts.
【学位授予单位】:黑龙江大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2009
【分类号】:D916.2;D956.1;D956.5

【参考文献】

相关期刊论文 前1条

1 焦武峰;普通法系国家律师与法官一体化传统研究[J];甘肃政法学院学报;2003年05期



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