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美国辩诉交易制度的历史考察与价值分析

发布时间:2019-01-12 19:47  文章来源:笔耕文化传播
【摘要】:19世纪的美国,刑事犯罪率居高不下,刑事案件出现严重积压。于是,一些大城市的检察官为了及时、有效地处理积压案件,开始尝试在司法实践中采用辩诉交易的做法,即以被告人做出有罪答辩为前提,该案的检察官承诺将减轻指控的罪名、或者减少指控的罪数、或者向法官提出更加有利于被告人的判决建议。由于辩诉交易能够有效降低检察官的举证压力,节约司法成本,并提高刑事司法效率,因此在美国的绝大部分州得以适用。而且,辩诉交易这一司法制度还冲破了法律背景、文化传统的种种差异,在世界上很多国家得到了广泛的运用和发展。 辩诉交易制度在批评中成长,在质疑中壮大,表现出顽强的生命力,并且对世界许多国家的刑事诉讼制度有着极其深远的影响,的确是一个发人深思的问题。当前,探讨和分析辩诉交易制度,成为我国学术界研究的一个热点,能不能引入以及如何引入这项制度成为了关注的焦点。而只有对辩诉交易制度的历史和价值进行充分的认识和深入的分析,才能更好地探究和解决我国是否引入以及怎样引入辩诉交易制度等诸多问题。目前,学者们对于辩诉交易制度历史沿革的某些基础问题还存有不同的看法,对于辩诉交易这一制度在世界上许多国家的适用情况还了解不够全面,对于辩诉交易的价值所在还需要进一步细致探讨。因此,笔者试图对辩诉交易制度产生、发展的各个阶段进行梳理,并分析辩诉交易制度在世界不同国家的差异,最后对辩诉交易制度的价值进行综合分析评价,以期为学术界的相关研究工作提供一些个人的思考。 本文除引言、结语以外,共分四个部分。 第一部分是美国辩诉交易制度的产生。明确了辩诉交易的涵义,探讨了辩诉交易制度产生的历史原因。 第二部分是美国辩诉交易制度的发展。通过对辩诉交易制度的发展进行梳理,明确美国辩诉交易制度是如何历经非公开状态到公开状态、最终成为国家的一项基本司法制度,以及怎么在种种责难、波折中发展壮大起来的。 第三部分是美国辩诉交易制度对其他国家的影响。结合英国、加拿大、澳大利亚、德国、意大利、西班牙、我国台湾地区等国家和地区对辩诉交易制度的规定,分析辩诉交易制度在不同国家的差异。 第四部分是辩诉交易制度的价值分析。主要是从辩诉交易制度自身的局限性和合理性等两个方面进行深入分析,得出结论“辩诉交易制度优势明显,它使被告人、司法系统和社会公共利益等多方受益,这正是辩诉交易制度的魅力所在”。 在论文的写作上,笔者主要采取了历史考证、历史分析对比等研究方法。
[Abstract]:In the United States in the 19 th century, the criminal crime rate remained high and the criminal cases appeared a serious backlog. As a result, in order to deal with the backlog of cases in a timely and effective manner, prosecutors in some major cities began to try to use plea bargaining in judicial practice, that is, on the premise that the accused made a guilty plea. Prosecutors in the case promised to reduce the charges either by reducing the number of charges or by offering a more favourable verdict to the judge. Plea bargaining can effectively reduce the burden of proof of prosecutors, save judicial costs, and improve the efficiency of criminal justice, so it can be applied in most states of the United States. Moreover, plea bargaining, a judicial system, has broken through the legal background and cultural tradition, and has been widely used and developed in many countries in the world. Plea bargaining system is growing in criticism and growing in questioning, showing indomitable vitality, and has a profound influence on the criminal procedure system of many countries in the world. It is indeed a thought-provoking issue. At present, the discussion and analysis of plea bargaining system has become a hot spot in the academic circles of our country. Whether and how to introduce this system has become the focus of attention. Only by fully understanding and analyzing the history and value of plea bargaining system can we better explore and solve many problems such as whether and how to introduce plea bargaining system in our country. At present, scholars still have different views on some basic issues in the history and evolution of plea bargaining system, and they do not have a comprehensive understanding of the application of plea bargaining system in many countries in the world. The value of plea bargaining needs further detailed discussion. Therefore, the author tries to sort out the emergence and development of the plea bargaining system, analyze the differences of the plea bargaining system in different countries in the world, and finally analyze and evaluate the value of the plea bargaining system. In order to provide some personal thinking for the academic research work. In addition to the introduction and conclusion, this article is divided into four parts. The first part is the emergence of American plea bargaining system. This paper clarifies the meaning of plea bargaining and probes into the historical reasons for the emergence of plea bargaining system. The second part is the development of American plea bargaining system. By combing the development of the plea bargaining system, it is clear how the American plea bargaining system goes through a closed state to a public state, and finally becomes a basic judicial system of the country, and how to criticize it in all sorts of ways. In the midst of twists and turns, it has grown stronger and stronger. The third part is the influence of American plea bargaining system on other countries. This paper analyzes the differences of plea bargaining system in different countries and regions such as Britain, Canada, Australia, Germany, Italy, Spain, Taiwan and other countries and regions. The fourth part is the value analysis of plea bargaining system. It mainly analyzes the limitation and rationality of plea bargaining system itself, and draws the conclusion that "plea bargaining system has obvious advantages, it benefits the defendant, judicial system and social public interest, and so on." This is the charm of the plea bargaining system. In the writing of the thesis, the author mainly adopts historical textual research, historical analysis and comparison and other research methods.
【学位授予单位】:西南政法大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2010
【分类号】:DD915.3;D971.2

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