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论合同信赖利益的法律保护

发布时间:2019-01-09 19:00  文章来源:笔耕文化传播
【摘要】:对合同信赖利益地关注和研究是商品经济发展水平的重要标志,体现了由静态的财产关系向动态的财产关系转变的时代法精神。德国学者耶林,最先对合同信赖利益进行研究,其创设的缔约过失责任理论开创了先河。美国学者富勒,继承、发展了他的学说,进一步探讨了合同信赖利益的赔偿范围以及赔偿限额问题,并在1937年首次明确提出了合同信赖利益的概念。 合同信赖利益是指在一方当事人在合同订立全过程直至合同生效前的各个阶段所固有的,因合理信赖合同有效成立或履行所获得的财产利益和机会利益。其独特的法律性质,使之区别于传统的合同责任和侵权责任二元理论。一方面,合同信赖利益突破了传统的违约责任,是否存在有效的合同形式不再是其产生的先决条件,相对人因合理信赖即可能获得或者已经获得利益。另一方面,在构成要件上,合同信赖利益呈现出了即融合又区别于合同责任与侵权责任的特性:首先,要有违反先合同义务的行为;其次,须有损害事实;再次要求行为人主观上存在过错;最后,须违反先合同义务的行为与损害事实之间存在因果关系。完备的构成要件不仅是认识合同信赖利益的基础,也是确定合同信赖利益损害赔偿限额的判定标准。 在德国,合同信赖利益一般是作为缔约过失责任的法律后果存在的,对合同信赖利益的保护主要是通过缔约过失责任来实现的。而与德国不同,在美国则可通过违约责任得到救济。虽然相差各异的法律文化,决定了两个国家各自不同的理论构建。但是其产生的理论基础,所追求的价值理念,法律制度的建设应当是一致的。两者间个性中共性地融合交汇,为我国合同信赖利益法律保护制度的完善提供了积极的借鉴范本。 我国对合同信赖利益的保护规定主要散见于《民法通则》和《合同法》中。但由于缺乏成熟的理论支撑,加之对西方法律制度地粗糙移植,造成了立法与实践相互脱节的局面。比如,在合同信赖利益的构成要件方面,立法只是将其限定为主观故意,忽视了过失情形下的合同信赖利益保护。对合同信赖利益的适用情形,赔偿范围,赔偿限额等问题亦缺乏明确的标准,严重制约了司法务实地可操作性。对此,我们应当以更加包容的心态去接纳西方的法律制度,积极借鉴并结合我国实际,取其精华去其糟粕。不仅需要在理论上加强研究,而且着重从立法上逐步完善:明确合同信赖利益的概念及丰富其构成要件,扩大合同信赖利益的适用范围,明合同信赖利益的赔偿范围和限额等。必要时可引入优势证据规则,完善举证责任制度。多角度分析、借鉴,才能不断地推进我国合同信赖利益法律保护制度地进步。
[Abstract]:It is an important sign of the level of commodity economy to pay close attention to and study the contract trust interest, which embodies the spirit of the times law which changes from the static property relation to the dynamic property relation. Jering, a German scholar, first studied the trust interest of contract, and his theory of fault liability in contracting was the first. Fuller, an American scholar, inherited and developed his theory, further discussed the scope and limitation of contract reliance interest, and put forward the concept of contract trust interest for the first time in 1937. Contract reliance interest refers to the property interest and opportunity interest acquired by a party during the whole process of contract conclusion until before the contract becomes effective, which is obtained from the effective formation or performance of a reasonable trust contract. Its unique legal nature distinguishes it from the traditional dual theory of contract liability and tort liability. On the one hand, the reliance interest of contract breaks through the traditional liability for breach of contract, whether there is an effective form of contract is no longer a prerequisite for its production, and the relative party may or has already obtained the benefit because of reasonable trust. On the other hand, the contract trust interest shows the characteristics of merging and differentiating from the contract liability and tort liability: firstly, the act of violating the prior contract obligation, secondly, the fact of damage; Finally, there is a causal relationship between the act of violating the obligation of prior contract and the fact of damage. The complete elements are not only the basis of understanding the contract trust interest, but also the criterion of determining the limit of contract trust interest damage compensation. In Germany, the contract trust interest usually exists as the legal consequence of the contract fault liability, and the protection of the contract trust interest is mainly realized through the contract fault liability. Unlike Germany, liability for breach of contract is available in the United States. Although the different legal culture, decided the two countries different theoretical construction. But the theoretical basis, the value concept and the construction of legal system should be consistent. It provides a positive model for the perfection of the legal protection system of contract trust interest in our country. The protection of contract trust interests in China is mainly scattered in the General principles of Civil Law and contract Law. However, due to the lack of mature theoretical support, coupled with the rough transplantation of western legal system, legislation and practice are divorced from each other. For example, in terms of the constitutive elements of contract reliance interest, the legislation only limits it to subjective intent and neglects the contract trust interest protection under the circumstance of negligence. The application of contract trust interest, the scope of compensation and the limitation of compensation are also lack of clear standard, which seriously restricts the practical operation of judicature. In this regard, we should accept the western legal system with a more tolerant attitude, actively draw lessons from and combine with the reality of our country, and take its essence to the dregs. It is necessary not only to strengthen the research in theory, but also to gradually perfect the legislation: to clarify the concept of contract trust interest and enrich its constituent elements, to expand the scope of application of contract trust interest, and to clarify the compensation scope and limitation of contract trust interest. If necessary, we can introduce superior evidence rules and perfect the system of burden of proof. Only through multi-angle analysis and reference, can we promote the progress of legal protection system of contract trust interest in our country.
【学位授予单位】:中国海洋大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2013
【分类号】:D923.6

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7 Q糜剿,

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