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论作为情势变更原则适用条件的显失公平要件

发布时间:2019-01-10 10:43
【摘要】:情势变更原则是合同法的重要原则之一,其确立与发展经历了一个漫长的过程,如今绝大多数国家都已经普遍承认这一原则,我国也通过司法解释正式对其承认。在实际生活中,情势变更原则的准确适用必须具备适用条件,只有掌握其适用条件,才能避免法官无形中扩大适用范围,限制其自由裁量权的扩张。本文着重点在于研究情势变更原则适用条件中的显失公平要件,如果在具备其他要件的情况下,并不具备显失公平要件,此时就不能适用情势变更原则。显失公平要件是情势变更原则适用条件的核心要件,因此有必要对显失公平要件进行全面考察和论述,并籍以通过与显失公平的民事行为中的“显失公平”进行初步对比分析,加上实务中的案例适用来分析进行加强证实,希望确立显失公平要件在情势变更原则适用条件中的重要地位,但目前关于如何认定显失公平,理论界没有达成统一意见,这还需要进一步的加强研究与探讨。如果能够规定出显失公平的标准,将能够使情势变更原则的适用更准确和有效。 本文除引言和结语外,分为四章。 第一章是作为情势变更原则适用条件的显失公平要件的概说。本章介绍对情势变更的概念、情势变更原则的内容,通过法学界对于情势变更原则适用条件的研究,从中得出显失公平要件都包含于其中的结论。论述显失公平要件的内容以及其与其他要件的关系,对其存在的合理性进行了个人阐述。 第二章是归纳法律文件中的情势变更原则对显失公平要件的态度。本章主要是从大陆法系国家与地区法律、国际文件以及我国法律文件等三方面法律规定的态度来进行考察,其中有的是直接提到“显失公平”,有的需要通过解读才能得到“显失公平”包含在内的结果。不管如何,这些法律文件中对显失公平的态度都是一致的,即都承认显失公平要件是适用条件之一。 第三章是关于情势变更原则适用条件的显失公平要件的法理研究。本章将作为情势变更原则适用条件的显失公平要件的“显失公平”与显失公平的民事行为中的“显失公平”进行初步比较,说明两者的显失公平是适用不同标准的,不能互相混淆。在通过法学界对显失公平要件内容的研究的基础上,笔者对其进行了个人评价并在结尾部分提出了自己关于认定显失公平要件的观点。 第四章是对情势变更原则适用条件的显失公平要件的适用以案例形式加以佐证其核心地位。本章主要通过两个不同案例展开分析:一个是既符合其他要件,也符合显失公平要件正确适用情势变更原则的案例;一个是虽符合其他要件,但不符合显失公平要件,法院错误裁判的案例。主要采取对案件事实、法院判决和笔者对案例采用个人的认定显失公平标准方法进行评析,以此来凸显显失公平要件的重要性。
[Abstract]:The principle of change of circumstances is one of the important principles of contract law, and its establishment and development has gone through a long process. Nowadays, most countries have generally recognized this principle, and our country has formally recognized it through judicial interpretation. In actual life, the accurate application of the principle of change of circumstances must have the applicable conditions. Only by mastering the applicable conditions, can the judge invisibly expand the scope of application and limit the expansion of his discretion. The emphasis of this paper is to study the explicit and unfair elements in the applicable conditions of the principle of change of circumstances. If there are other elements in the case of not having the elements of explicit inequity, the principle of change of circumstances cannot be applied at this time. Explicit and unfair elements are the core elements of the applicable conditions of the principle of change of circumstances. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct a comprehensive investigation and discussion on the elements of explicit and unfairness, and to make a preliminary comparative analysis with the "explicit and unfair" in civil acts. In addition, the case application in practice is analyzed to strengthen the verification, hoping to establish the important position of explicit unfair elements in the application conditions of the principle of change of circumstances. However, at present, there is no unified opinion on how to determine the explicit inequity. This also needs to further strengthen the research and discussion. The application of the principle of circumstance change will be more accurate and effective if the criterion of apparent inequity can be defined. In addition to the introduction and conclusion, this article is divided into four chapters. The first chapter is a summary of the inequitable elements as the applicable conditions of the principle of change of circumstances. This chapter introduces the concept of the change of circumstances and the content of the principle of change of circumstances. Through the study of the applicable conditions of the principle of change of circumstances in the field of law, the author draws the conclusion that the elements of explicit inequity are contained in it. This paper discusses the content of explicit unfair elements and the relationship between them and other elements, and expounds the rationality of their existence. The second chapter summarizes the attitude of the principle of change of circumstances in legal documents. This chapter is mainly from the continental law system countries and regions of the law, international documents and China's legal documents and other aspects of the attitude of the three legal provisions, some of which directly referred to "manifestly unfair," Some need to be interpreted in order to get the results included in "explicit inequity". In any case, these legal documents have the same attitude towards explicit inequity, that is, they all admit that explicit inequity is one of the applicable conditions. The third chapter is a legal study on the application conditions of the principle of change of circumstances. This chapter makes a preliminary comparison between "explicit and unfair" and "explicit and unfair" in civil acts, which are the applicable conditions of the principle of change of circumstances, and shows that the explicit and unfair of both are applicable to different standards. We should not confuse each other. On the basis of the research on the content of explicit and unfair elements in the field of law, the author makes a personal evaluation of it and puts forward his own views on the identification of explicit and unfair elements at the end of this paper. The fourth chapter is the application of the inequitable elements of the principle of change of circumstances to prove its core position in the form of cases. This chapter mainly through the analysis of two different cases: one is not only in line with other elements, but also in line with the explicit unfair elements of the correct application of the principle of change of circumstances; One is the case of court misjudgment, although it conforms to the other elements, but it does not accord with the condition of manifestly unfair. This paper mainly adopts the analysis of the facts of the case, the judgment of the court and the author's evaluation of the standard method of the personal cognizance of the inequity, in order to highlight the importance of the elements of the obvious and the inequitable.
【学位授予单位】:南京大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2012
【分类号】:D923.6

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