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循环经济下的生产者责任延伸制度研究

发布时间:2018-09-14 20:31  文章来源:笔耕文化传播
【摘要】: 人类社会经历了经济高速发展的同时,也伴随着资源耗竭、环境严重污染的事实。为了解决废弃物的大量产生,提高资源的利用率,从而实现整个社会经济的循环发展,生产者责任延伸制度得以产生。生产者责任延伸制度(Extended Producer Responsibility,以下简称EPR制度)是一项新型环境政策,其将生产者的责任向产品生命周期的上游和下游延伸,特别是注重产品消费后废弃物的回收、再利用和处置的责任,从而实现产品整个生命周期内的环境保护。自1988年瑞典学者托马斯教授提出生产者责任延伸概念以来,EPR制度已经经历了20多年的发展,在理论上和实践中已经日趋完善,典型的代表有:瑞典、德国、美国、日本以及欧盟地区。 相对于发达国家EPR制度的理论和实践,我国的EPR制度还处于发展初期,无论是在EPR理论上,还是在EPR实践上,都与发达国家存在着较大的差距。面对我国人均资源少、废弃物的大量产生以及环境遭到破坏的事实,建立和健全EPR制度是刻不容缓、势在必行的任务。循环经济发展模式已经成为未来我国经济发展的模式,而EPR制度是循环经济的重要组成部分,其对实现可持续发展有着重要的意义。EPR制度现今已经受到我国学界的高度关注,学界对此进行了深入、系统的研究,而且随着《中华人民共和国循环经济促进法》的出台和实施,该制度在我国立法上开始呈现体系化发展的趋势。本文通过对EPR制度理念发展过程的梳理,该制度理论基础的阐述以及发达国家EPR制度实施现状的考察,力图为我国EPR制度的建立和健全提出有益的参考。 本文共分为四个部分。第一部分梳理了EPR思想的发展过程,提出了两种代表性的观点,即“欧盟观点”和“美国观点”,世界上大多数国家赞成前者,同时还具体分析了EPR制度三个方面的具体要素。第二部分,笔者着重阐述了EPR制度的理论基础,详细阐明了产品生命周期、企业社会责任、环境权、可持续发展、循环经济五大理论与EPR制度的关系。第三部分,笔者主要介绍了瑞典、德国、美国、日本和欧盟等几个比较发达的国家和地区的EPR立法,并分析了他们各自的特点,在此基础上还对实施对象、实施方式、实施途径和相关配套制度等问题进行了分析。第四部分笔者主要分析了我国EPR立法的现状,提出了我国在EPR立法上的缺失,并结合我国实施EPR制度的必要性和可行性,从立法层面提出了符合我国国情的EPR制度。
[Abstract]:Human society has experienced rapid economic development, but also accompanied by the fact that resources are exhausted and the environment is seriously polluted. In order to solve the problem of waste production, improve the utilization rate of resources and realize the circular development of the whole society and economy, the extended system of producer responsibility can be produced. Producer responsibility extension system (Extended Producer Responsibility,) is a new environmental policy, which extends producer responsibility to the upstream and downstream of product life cycle, especially to the recovery of waste after product consumption. Reuse and disposal of the responsibility to achieve the product throughout the life cycle of environmental protection. Since the Swedish scholar Professor Thomas put forward the concept of extended producer responsibility in 1988, the EPR system has undergone more than 20 years of development, and has become more and more perfect in theory and practice. The typical representatives are Sweden, Germany, the United States. Japan and the European Union. Compared with the theory and practice of EPR system in developed countries, our country's EPR system is still in the early stage of development. There is a big gap between our country and developed countries in EPR theory or EPR practice. In the face of the fact that the per capita resources of our country are few, a large amount of waste is produced and the environment is destroyed, it is an urgent task to establish and perfect the EPR system. The development mode of circular economy has become the mode of economic development in the future in our country, and the EPR system is an important part of circular economy, which is of great significance to the realization of sustainable development.EPR system has been highly concerned by the academic circles in our country. The academic circles have carried on the thorough and systematic research, and with the promulgation and implementation of the Circular economy Promotion Law of the people's Republic of China, the system has begun to take on the trend of systematization development in the legislation of our country. By combing the development process of the concept of EPR system, expounding the theoretical basis of the system and investigating the present situation of the implementation of the EPR system in developed countries, this paper tries to provide a useful reference for the establishment and perfection of the EPR system in our country. This paper is divided into four parts. The first part combs the development process of EPR thought, puts forward two kinds of representative viewpoints, namely "European Union viewpoint" and "American viewpoint". Most countries in the world agree with the former, and at the same time, analyze the concrete elements of three aspects of EPR system. In the second part, the author expatiates on the theoretical basis of EPR system, and expounds in detail the relationship between the five theories of product life cycle, corporate social responsibility, environmental rights, sustainable development, circular economy and EPR system. In the third part, the author mainly introduces the EPR legislation of Sweden, Germany, the United States, Japan and the European Union, and analyzes their respective characteristics. Implementation approaches and related supporting systems were analyzed. In the fourth part, the author mainly analyzes the current situation of EPR legislation in our country, points out the lack of EPR legislation in our country, and combines the necessity and feasibility of implementing EPR system in our country, and puts forward the EPR system which conforms to the national conditions of our country from the legislative level.
【学位授予单位】:中国海洋大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2010
【分类号】:D912.29;D912.6

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