热门搜索: 论文 发表 社科期刊 北大核心 南大核心 cssci 科技期刊 教育

当前位置:主页 > 法律论文 > 环境法论文 >

中国农村居民环境权研究

发布时间:2019-01-10 17:57  文章来源:笔耕文化传播
【摘要】:本文之所以将农村居民环境权作为研究对象,是由于笔者一直以来十分关注农村居民的生活状况。当下中国农村居民的环境权遭受侵害的现象十分严重,虽然有一些研究的文献对这一问题作了相应的探讨,其中一些文献也关注到了城乡经济二元结构这一现实,这是值得肯定的。但在我看来,对这一问题的关注还应当放在全球化的背景下进行讨论,特别要关注到当下中国的困境:工业社会与风险社会的悖论。基于此,本文试图通过引入贝克的风险社会理论展开对中国农村居民环境权的研究。 本文认为环境权的主体应为个人及其由个人组成的多数乃至于人类。虽然中国农村居民也是环境权的主体,但是中国农村居民的环境权有其自身的特征:第一,农村居民环境权的权利意识比较淡薄,不利于自我主张权利;第二,农村居民环境权的侵害更为复杂,主要是对农村环境的污染来源比较广泛,既包括农村居民在生产生活中产生的污染,也包括工业化、城市化过程中产生的污染;第三,对农村居民环境权的保护力度相对不足,这既包括制度上的保护力度也包括经济上的投入相对不足。 当下中国面临的困境是全球化背景下的工业社会与风险社会的悖论。在古典工业社会中,财富生产的“逻辑”统治着风险生产的“逻辑”,而在风险社会中,这种关系就颠倒了过来,而当下中国正处于工业社会与风险社会并存的状态。对于中国政府来讲,既要解决“我饿”的难题,同时又要解决“我怕”的难题。当以经济建设为中心的发展之路表明了其是以满足“我饿”为目的的,但当我们以西方为参照推进工业化、城市化发展的过程中,农村和农村居民则不被当做首要的关注对象,农村居民的弱势地位显而易见。同时,由于城乡二元结构的影响,也给农村居民环境权的保护和救济带来了诸多的困难。 同时,居民环境权未被我国宪法和法律明确规定,而且没有形成保护农村居民环境权的统一的法律体系,环境立法虽然数量可观,但很多都没有将农村地区的环境污染和破坏纳入立法调整的视野。我国农村环境污染具有不同于城市污染的特点,其中农业生产导致的面源污染就有别于城市的点源污染。而且从已有的环境立法来看,赋权和救济的规定少,管制和义务性的规定多,明显具有政府管制的特点。 中国农村居民环境权能够真正的实现涉及的因素很多,本文主要从以下几个方面进行了讨论:第一,可持续发展战略的真正落实;第二,环境权的法定化及司法救济的顺畅;第三,环境行政执法职能的有效转变;第四,农村居民环境权利意识的觉醒。 总之,因为农村居民是中国人口的绝大多数,他们环境权的实现则表明了中国发展的文明程度。同时,在工业社会与风险社会共存的状态下,中国农村居民环境权的实现之路将异常的崎岖。
[Abstract]:The reason why this paper regards the environmental rights of rural residents as the object of study is that the author has always paid close attention to the living conditions of rural residents. At present, the phenomenon that the environmental rights of rural residents in China have been infringed upon is very serious. Although there are some researches on this issue, some of them also pay attention to the reality of the dual structure of urban and rural economy. This is to be sure. But in my opinion, the focus on this issue should also be discussed in the context of globalization, especially in the current plight of China: the paradox of industrial society and risk society. Based on this, this paper attempts to introduce Baker's theory of risk society to study the environmental rights of rural residents in China. This paper holds that the subject of environmental right should be individual and its majority composed of individuals and even human beings. Although rural residents in China are also the main body of environmental rights, the environmental rights of rural residents in China have their own characteristics: first, the awareness of environmental rights of rural residents is relatively weak, which is not conducive to self-assertive rights; Second, the infringement of rural residents' environmental rights is more complex, mainly because the pollution sources of rural environment are more extensive, including not only the pollution produced by rural residents in production and life, but also the pollution produced in the process of industrialization and urbanization. Third, the protection of environmental rights of rural residents is relatively inadequate, which includes both institutional protection and economic investment. The dilemma that China faces is the paradox of industrial society and risk society under the background of globalization. In the classical industrial society, the "logic" of wealth production dominates the "logic" of risk production, while in the risk society, this relationship is reversed, while China is in the state of coexistence of industrial society and risk society. For the Chinese government, the problem of "I am hungry" and "I am afraid" must be solved. When the road to economic development shows that it is designed to satisfy "I am hungry," but when we use the West as a reference to promote industrialization and urbanization, rural and rural residents are not regarded as the primary focus. The weak position of rural residents is obvious. At the same time, due to the dual structure of urban and rural areas, it also brings a lot of difficulties to the protection and relief of rural residents' environmental rights. At the same time, the environmental rights of residents are not clearly stipulated by the Constitution and laws of our country, and there is no unified legal system to protect the environmental rights of rural residents. Although the number of environmental legislation is considerable, But many do not include environmental pollution and damage in rural areas into the vision of legislative adjustment. Rural environmental pollution in China is different from urban pollution, and the non-point source pollution caused by agricultural production is different from that of urban point source pollution. From the point of view of the existing environmental legislation, the provisions of empowerment and relief are few, and the regulations of regulation and obligation are many, which obviously has the characteristics of government regulation. There are many factors involved in the realization of environmental rights of rural residents in China. This paper mainly discusses the following aspects: first, the implementation of sustainable development strategy; second, the legalization of environmental rights and smooth judicial relief; Third, the effective transformation of environmental administrative law enforcement function, fourth, the awakening of rural residents' awareness of environmental rights. In short, because rural residents are the vast majority of China's population, the realization of their environmental rights shows the civilization of China's development. At the same time, under the coexistence of industrial society and risk society, the road of realizing environmental rights of rural residents in China will be unusually rugged.
【学位授予单位】:吉林大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2011
【分类号】:D922.68;X197

【参考文献】

相关期刊论文 前10条

1 范海玉;申静;;论农村环境保护中的公众参与制度[J];保定学院学报;2009年05期

2 张松霞;王青媛;;试论乡镇政府对农民环境权保护的不足及其完善[J];才智;2009年34期

3 温铁军;;立足现有的城乡二元结构解决三农问题[J];北京规划建设;2006年03期

4 周作翰;张英洪;;当代中国农民的环境权[J];湖南师范大学社会科学学报;2007年03期

5 方慧;;我国农村环境保护法制建设中的问题及对策分析[J];怀化学院学报;2009年03期

6 华中煜;;我国城乡二元结构的制度障碍与破解之路[J];理论导刊;2010年01期

7 张忠潮;再论环境权主体[J];西北农林科技大学学报(社会科学版);2004年03期

8 李明宇,金丽馥;我国城乡二元结构现状解析及路径选择[J];农业经济;2005年04期

9 刘超;;理念与构造:农民环境权的保护进路[J];聊城大学学报(社会科学版);2010年06期

10 吴献萍;;我国农民环境权法律保护的不足及其完善[J];文史博览(理论);2007年10期

相关硕士学位论文 前2条

1 石岩;新农村环境保护法制建设研究[D];东北林业大学;2008年

2 俞淑芳;我国农民环境知情权法律保护研究[D];湖南师范大学;2010年



本文编号:2406618


论文下载
论文发表
教材专著
专利申请


    下载步骤:1.微信扫码,备注编号 2406618. 2.自助下载


    本文链接:http://www.bigengculture.com/falvlunwen/huanjingziyuanfa/2406618.html