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形成权行使问题探析

发布时间:2018-12-31 08:07  文章来源:笔耕文化传播
【摘要】: 形成权是大陆法系特有的概念,由德国学者泽克尔(Scekel)首创。其产生的背景在于当时德国正在进行的诉讼法与实体法的划分,为了为诉讼法上的形成之诉找到实体法上的依据。形成权的提出,不仅为诉讼法上的形成之诉找到了实体法上的依据,而且扩张了权利的范畴,使权利谱系更加完整。因此,德国法学家Hans Dolle将其称为法学上的发现。形成权发展至今,学说上一致认为其是依照权利人单方的意思表示就能使既存的法律关系发生变动的权利集合体。形成权以法律关系为客体,并具有迅速确定法律关系的功能。在形成权的类型中,最重要的一种分类就是把形成权分为单纯形成权、形成诉权与形成反对权,单纯形成权是形成权的常态,其一般通过单方意思表示行使。在特殊情形下,单纯形成权也可以代理行使和代位行使。形成诉权是指必须通过诉讼方式行使的一类权利,当形成权作为抗辩权的部分功能而在诉讼中行使的时候,就有了形成反对权这种非单纯意义上的形成权,从而也就引出了形成权在行使过程中的证明责任分配问题。我国实体法中虽然没有典型意义上的形成诉权,但是有三种形成诉权的行使是值得充分注意的。第一种分布在《合同法》中,即可撤销合同中撤销权的行使。第二种分布在《公司法》中,即股东对公司瑕疵决议的撤销权的行使。第三种分布在《婚姻法》中,即可撤销婚姻中的撤销权的行使。由于我国很少有学者从形成权行使的角度对这三种权利进行研究,因此对此问题研究具有较深的理论价值与实践意义。基于形成权的单方形成功能,需要对其进行较为严格的限制,这种限制主要表现为形成权行使不得附条件与附期限以及除斥期间对形成权行使的限制。
[Abstract]:Right of formation is a unique concept in the continental law system, which was pioneered by German scholar Zeckel (Scekel). Its background lies in the division of procedural law and substantive law in Germany at that time, in order to find the basis of substantive law for the formation of procedural law. The putting forward of the right of formation not only finds the basis of substantive law for the litigation of formation in procedural law, but also expands the category of right and makes the pedigree of right more complete. Therefore, the German jurist Hans Dolle called it a discovery in law. Since the development of the right of formation, it has been agreed that it is a collection of rights which can make the existing legal relationship change according to the unilateral expression of the will of the right holder. The right of formation takes the legal relation as the object and has the function of determining the legal relation quickly. In the type of formation right, the most important kind of classification is to divide the formation right into simple form right, form right of action and form right of opposition, simple right of formation is the normal state of formation right, which is generally exercised by unilateral expression of will. Under special circumstances, the pure formation right can also be exercised by proxy and subrogation. The forming right of action is a kind of right that must be exercised by way of litigation. When the right of formation is exercised in the litigation as part of the function of the right of defense, there is the right of formation and opposition, which is not a simple right of formation. Therefore, it leads to the distribution of burden of proof in the exercise of the right of formation. Although there is no typical formative right of action in the substantive law of our country, there are three kinds of formative right of action which are worthy of full attention. The first is distributed in contract Law, which can revoke the exercise of the right of rescission. The second kind is distributed in Company Law, that is, the exercise of shareholders' right to rescind the defective resolution of the company. The third kind distributes in the Marriage Law, can cancel the exercise of the right of rescission in the marriage. There are few scholars in China to study these three rights from the perspective of the exercise of the right of formation, so the research on this issue has deep theoretical value and practical significance. Based on the unilateral forming function of the formation right, it is necessary to restrict it strictly, which mainly shows that the exercise of the right of formation can not be subject to conditions and deadlines, and the restrictions on the exercise of the formation right during the period of exclusion.
【学位授予单位】:湖南大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2009
【分类号】:D913

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