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论保险业横向垄断协议之豁免

发布时间:2019-01-12 17:34
【摘要】:保险业是经营风险的行业,具有分散风险的功能,被誉为"社会稳定器",在国民经济中占有十分重要的地位。保险业的核心功能定位是风险保障,如果保险价格过高,则会丧失风险保障的功能,如果保险价格过低,又往往会造成保险公司自身的破产从而引发整个行业的动荡。费率是保险的价格,保险的价格主要由两部分构成——法定部分和自行决定部分,法定部分即纯风险保费,与保险公司的偿付能力挂钩,自行决定部分主要包括公司的预期利润和运营成本,理想状态下保险的价格应当是法定部分占大头,自行决定部分占小头,可实际生活中却往往由于保险公司之间的恶性竞争,导致出现相反的情况。正因如此,构建保险业公平竞争秩序变得尤为重要。目前,在保险业构建公平竞争制度已经成为世界范围内的一种共识,但是保险业存在着特殊性,保险费率的厘定需要运用到"大数法则"的方法,共同保险领域需要运用同一合同条款、同一费率,这些具有构成横向垄断协议的嫌疑,这种特殊性也就决定了保险业适用反垄断法的特殊性,需要通过豁免制度来解决。公平竞争环境下,绝不可能是整个保险业豁免适用反垄断法,何种行为可以被豁免成为本文讨论重点。本文希望通过对保险业横向垄断协议是否应该豁免,以及何种行为可以被豁免的讨论得出保险业对《反垄断法》的适用准则,以有限行为豁免倒逼出保险业如何在《反垄断法》的规制下良性运作。本文沿着从豁免理论到保险业反垄断实践、从域外保险业豁免制度经验总结到我国具体制度构建的路径进行探讨研究。就具体制度构建的路径选择,有如下建议:第一,制定《保险业反垄断指南》,对保险业的垄断行为以及可豁免行为提供明确的法律依据;第二,根据有限行为豁免理论,通过比较分析确定推定豁免的范围,给予某些信息交换行为和某些共同保险、共同再保险行为豁免的地位;第三,确定个案豁免的要件,具体包括效率增益、必不可少性、惠及消费者以及没有排除竞争四个方面;第四,本文通过对保险业个案豁免申请、审查、批准和监督四个环节的讨论,以完善个案豁免的程序,通过程序正义推动实体正义的实现;第五,保险业是受到严格监管的行业,保险业存在监管有其必要性,我国建立了以偿付能力为核心,包涵公司治理、市场行为监管的"三支柱"体系,在保险业的经营活动中,往往会同时出现监管机构和反垄断执法机构的身影,那么在讨论保险业反垄断法豁免的过程中,就需要明确二者之间的关系,确定《反垄断法》为保险经营者市场行为最高的行为准则,构建二者之间的信息共享和协调机制,为保险业的发展创造有利的法律环境。
[Abstract]:Insurance industry is an industry with the function of dispersing risks. It is called "social stabilizer" and plays a very important role in the national economy. The core function of the insurance industry is risk protection. If the insurance price is too high, it will lose the function of risk protection. If the insurance price is too low, it will often lead to the bankruptcy of the insurance company itself and lead to the turbulence of the whole industry. The rate is the price of insurance. The price of insurance is mainly composed of two parts-the statutory part and the discretionary part. The legal part, that is, the pure risk premium, is linked to the solvency of the insurance company. The discretionary part mainly includes the expected profits and operating costs of the company. Ideally, the price of insurance should be the majority of the legal part and the part of the discretionary part small, but in real life it is often due to the vicious competition between the insurance companies. Lead to the opposite. For this reason, it is particularly important to build a fair competition order in the insurance industry. At present, it has become a worldwide consensus to build a fair competition system in the insurance industry. However, the insurance industry has its own particularity, and the determination of premium rates needs to be applied to the "law of large numbers" method. The common insurance field needs to use the same contract clause and the same rate, which are suspected to form the horizontal monopoly agreement. This particularity also determines the particularity of the application of the anti-monopoly law in the insurance industry, which needs to be solved by the exemption system. In the environment of fair competition, it is impossible for the whole insurance industry exemption to apply anti-monopoly law, and what kind of behavior can be exempted becomes the focus of this paper. This paper hopes to discuss whether the horizontal monopoly agreement of the insurance industry should be exempted, and what conduct can be exempted from it, so as to obtain the applicable criteria of the insurance industry to the Anti-Monopoly Law. The exemption of limited behavior forces the insurance industry to operate well under the regulation of the Anti-Monopoly Law. This paper discusses the ways from exemption theory to anti-monopoly practice of insurance industry and from the experience of extraterritorial insurance exemption system to the construction of China's specific system. On the path choice of specific system construction, there are the following suggestions: first, to formulate the "Insurance Anti-Monopoly Guide", to provide a clear legal basis for the monopoly behavior and exempt behavior of the insurance industry; Secondly, according to the theory of limited behavior immunity, the scope of presumption immunity is determined through comparative analysis, and some information exchange acts and some co-insurance, co-reinsurance behavior immunity status are given. Third, to determine the elements of exemption in individual cases, including efficiency gains, necessity, benefits to consumers and not excluding competition; Fourthly, this paper discusses the application, examination, approval and supervision of the exemption of insurance cases in order to perfect the procedure of exemption and promote the realization of substantive justice through procedural justice. Fifthly, the insurance industry is under strict supervision. It is necessary for the insurance industry to have supervision. China has established a "three-pillar" system with solvency as the core, including corporate governance and supervision of market behavior, in the business activities of the insurance industry. Regulators and anti-monopoly law enforcement agencies often appear at the same time. In the process of discussing the exemption of the insurance industry's anti-monopoly law, it is necessary to clarify the relationship between the two. To establish anti-monopoly law as the highest standard of conduct of insurance operators in the market, to construct the information sharing and coordination mechanism between them, and to create a favorable legal environment for the development of the insurance industry.
【学位授予单位】:安徽大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2017
【分类号】:D922.294

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