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论信用卡合同的法律规制

发布时间:2018-07-30 06:35  文章来源:笔耕文化传播
【摘要】: 信用卡,作为一种发卡机构向持卡人提供信用的信贷工具,最早产生于美国。由于信用卡具有携带方便、转帐消费功能齐全、安全快捷等优点,使其迅速在世界各地得以蓬勃发展,并已成为人们普遍采用的小额电子资金划拨工具和信贷工具。随着信用卡业务的飞速发展,信用卡业已成为社会生活中交易消费活动不可或缺的重要媒介,但相应地,信用卡支付体系中固有的缺陷也逐步暴露出来,而各国往往通过立法的方式对信用卡存在的相关问题进行规制。 具体就信用卡在我国的发展情况而言,近二十年来,在国际经济的大方向下,我国各专业银行为顺应市场经济中的购物消费、转帐结算等需要,也纷纷向社会提供了信用卡这一金融产品,,虽说信用卡产业在我国的发展势头喜人,但由于起步较晚,与发达国家相比,我国的信用卡业务在技术水平、市场培育、法制保障等方面都不甚成熟,单以对其的法律规制而言,就存在严重的立法缺失,到目前为止我国还没有关于信用卡的专门立法,唯一完全针对信用卡的立法是中国人民银行于1999年颁布的《银行卡业务管理办法》,其余的则散见于最高人民法院、最高人民检察院的几个司法解释和财政部的暂行规定中,欠缺一个相对完整的立法体制。对信用卡这一存在强大潜在风险的体系来说,立法的缺失会产生一系列始料不及的弊端,如发卡行和持卡人的权利义务得不到清楚的界定,使持卡人往往被发卡行的格式合同所限,处于弱势地位;再如对于信用卡当事人的民事责任没有明确规定,也必然导致纠纷的大量存在。由此可见,对信用卡进行法律规制尤其是民法规制是十分必要的。 笔者认为,虽然信用卡涉及的法律问题很多,但信用卡合同却是其中最为关键的因素,只要能对信用卡合同进行系统全面的保障和规制,就必然能为当事人的行为设置一个限定标准,有效预防信用卡违法行为的发生,减少信用卡纠纷;同时在信用卡当事人之间建立起一个最佳的利益平衡点,充分维护各方的经济利益,真正实现效率与公平的兼顾。为此,对信用卡合同的研究也就显得必然和必要了。本文就将以实现对信用卡合同的有效法律规制为目的,试图将信用卡合同与一般的货币融通合同和提供服务合同区别开来,从信用卡合同的基本组成入手,对信用卡合同从基本情况概述、信用卡合同中的合同权利、合同义务以及合同责任四个方面来展开论述。 首先来看对信用卡合同的概述部分,这一部分是作为全文的一个导入,对信用卡合同中的一些基本情况做出大致的交代。就讨论对象而言,本文所指的信用卡是指严格意义上的信用卡,即主要由银行发放,持卡人无须预先存款即可消费借贷的“贷记卡”。在明确这一点后,笔者以信用卡法律关系的主体为立足点,将一系列复杂的信用卡合同涉及的基本主体界定为发卡行、持卡人、特约商户三方,并将三方当事人信用卡合同作为本文的研究重点;在对信用卡合同的法律性质分析中,将发卡行与持卡人间的合同性质定位为以授信为基础的混合契约,而发卡行与特约商户间的合同笔者则倾向于独立担保说,持卡人与特约商户间的合同性质因具体情况不同而不同,作为信用卡从合同的保证合同具有最高额保证的性质……最后得出结论,将信用卡合同归纳为一种具有关联信用联系的特殊法律关系,从而确立了全文的研究基准。 其次就进入了对信用卡合同的权利与义务的介绍。这部分内容契合了本文的主旨,是必不可少的。在信用卡合同权利部分,将权利分为一般权利与特殊权利来进行讨论,并将重点放在了对持卡人特殊权利的设置上。一般权利是从发卡行、持卡人、特约商户以及保证人各自所应享有的权利来进行分析的,比如发卡行有权停止某持卡人使用信用卡等等;对于特殊权利,则是从保护持卡人的利益出发,提出持卡人应享有条件变更知情权和抗辩权,从而平衡持卡人与发卡行之间不平等的利益关系。至于信用卡合同的义务部分,由于在双务合同中,权利义务呈现出对应性,因此对信用卡合同的义务进行的是与权利主体相对应的论述,并为下文的信用卡合同责任部分做好铺垫。 信用卡合同责任部分是本文的重点。信用卡法律关系中可能会产生民事责任、行政责任甚至是刑事责任。但显然民事责任更偏重维护利益而不是处罚,体现了民法的精神原则。信用卡民事责任又可进一步划分为合同责任和非合同责任,非合同责任主要指缔约过失责任与侵权责任,而合同责任则包括了违约责任和保证责任,本文将着眼点放在对信用卡合同责任的分析上。在违约责任部分,将信用卡实践中遇到的违约责任主要分为信用卡透支时所产生的民事责任和信用卡挂失止付的民事责任,并按照不同的主体、不同的时间点加以区分,详细地进行论述;在保证责任方面,对信用卡保证人所应承担的保证责任从责任范围、责任承担期限以及抗辩事由三个方面逐一分析,加深了对信用卡合同体系中居于从属地位的保证合同的理解和认识。 在文章最后,笔者提出了对信用卡合同进行法律规制与完善的一些构想。比如可以通过提高信用卡合同的立法层次,建立以民事责任为中心的法律责任体系,颁布信用卡合同的规范文本等等措施,使信用卡合同不断趋于成熟,笔者也期望能够通过对信用卡合同法律规制的探索,为如何实现信用卡业务的规范化、保护持卡人的合法权益等问题做出一点贡献。
[Abstract]:Credit card, which is a credit card to the cardholder, is first produced in the United States. Because the credit card has the advantages of convenient carrying, full function of transfer and safe and quick, it has developed rapidly all over the world, and has become a widely used small electronic fund allocation tool and credit worker. With the rapid development of credit card business, credit card has become an indispensable medium of transaction consumption activities in social life, but accordingly, the inherent defects in the credit card payment system are gradually exposed, and countries often regulate the existing problems of credit card through the way of legislation.
In terms of the development of the credit card in China, in the past twenty years, in the direction of the international economy, the professional banks of our country have provided the credit card to the society in order to meet the needs of the market economy, such as shopping consumption, transfer and settlement. Compared with the developed countries, the credit card business of our country is not very mature in technical level, market cultivation, legal guarantee and so on. In terms of its legal regulation, there is a serious lack of legislation. So far, there is no special legislation on credit cards in our country. The only legislation for credit card is the Chinese people. The bank was issued in 1999, the bank card business management method > the rest is scattered in the Supreme People's court, the Supreme People's Procuratorate has several judicial interpretations and the Provisional Regulations of the Ministry of finance, which lacks a relatively complete legislative system. The lack of legislation will produce a series of legislation for the system of strong potential risk of credit card. The unforeseen malpractice, such as the right and duty of the issuing bank and the cardholder, can not be clearly defined, so that the cardholder is often limited by the format contract of the card issuing bank and is in a weak position. Again, there is no clear provision for the civil liability of the credit card parties, and it will inevitably lead to a large number of disputes. Thus, the law of the credit card is made. Regulation, especially in civil law, is very necessary.
The author believes that, although there are many legal problems involved in the credit card, the credit card contract is the most important factor. As long as it can guarantee and regulate the credit card contract systematically and comprehensively, it will inevitably set a limited standard for the parties' behavior, effectively prevent the occurrence of the illegal behavior of the credit card, and reduce the credit card disputes. At the same time, a best balance of interests is set up between the parties of the credit card, to fully safeguard the economic interests of all parties and to realize the balance of efficiency and fairness. Therefore, the study of the credit card contract is necessary and necessary. This article will aim at realizing the effective legal regulation of the credit card contract and try to make the credit card. The contract is different from the general monetary contract and the service contract. Starting with the basic composition of the credit card contract, the paper discusses the four aspects of the credit card contract from the basic situation, the contract right in the credit card contract, the contract obligation and the contract responsibility.
First of all, this part is an overview of the credit card contract. This part is an introduction to the full text, which makes a general explanation of some basic conditions in the credit card contract. For the object of discussion, the credit card referred to in this article refers to the credit card in the strict sense, which is mainly issued by the bank, and the cardholder is not required to consume in advance. On the basis of the main body of the credit card legal relationship, the author defines the basic subject of a series of complex credit card contracts as the issuing bank, the cardholder, the three party of the special merchant, and the credit card contract of the three parties as the focus of this paper, and the law of the credit card contract. In the analysis of the law nature, the contract nature of the issuing bank and the cardholder is defined as a mixed contract based on the credit. The contract between the issuing bank and the special merchant tends to be independent guarantee that the nature of the contract between the cardholder and the special merchant is different because of the specific circumstances. As a credit card, the contract has the best contract. In the end, we conclude that the credit card contract is a special legal relationship with related credit links, thus establishing the research datum of the full text.
Secondly, it introduces the rights and obligations of the credit card contract. This part is an essential part of this article. In the part of the credit card contract, the rights are divided into general rights and special rights, and the emphasis is placed on the special rights of the cardholders. The general right is from the issuing bank. The cardholder, the special merchant and the guarantor's respective rights should be analyzed, for example, the issuer has the right to stop a card holder from using a credit card and so on. For special rights, it is from the protection of the interests of the cardholder that the cardholder should enjoy the right to know and defer the condition of change, so as to balance the cardholder and the issuing bank. In the part of the obligation of the credit card contract, due to the correspondence of the rights and obligations in the double contract, the obligation of the credit card contract is discussed relative to the subject of the right, and the part of the following credit card contract responsibility is well paving.
The part of the credit card contract responsibility is the focus of this article. There may be civil liability, administrative responsibility and even criminal responsibility in the legal relationship of credit card. However, it is obvious that the civil liability is more important to safeguard the interests rather than the punishment, which embodies the spiritual principle of the civil law. Non contractual liability mainly refers to the liability for negligence and liability for tort, while the contractual liability includes the liability for breach of contract and the liability of guarantee. This article will focus on the analysis of the liability of the credit card contract. In the part of the liability for breach of contract, the liability for breach of contract in the practice of credit card is mainly divided into the civil liability and letter produced when the credit card is overdrawn. The civil liability to stop and pay by the card is divided and discussed in detail according to the different subjects and different time points. In the respect of the responsibility, the guarantee responsibility for the credit card guarantor should be analyzed from the scope of responsibility, the time limit for responsibility and the three sides of the defense. It deepens the credit card contract system. Understanding and Understanding of Guarantee Contract in Subordinate Status.
At the end of the article, the author puts forward some ideas about the legal regulation and perfection of the credit card contract, for example, by improving the legislative level of the credit card contract, establishing the legal responsibility system centered on the civil liability, promulgation of the standard text of the credit card contract and so on, so that the credit card contract tends to mature, and the author also expects that the credit card contract will become mature. Through the exploration of the legal regulation of the credit card contract, we can make a little contribution to the standardization of the credit card business and the protection of the legitimate rights and interests of the cardholders.
【学位授予单位】:西南政法大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2007
【分类号】:D922.281

【引证文献】

相关硕士学位论文 前10条

1 孙立元;信用卡消费者的权益保护问题研究[D];华东政法大学;2010年

2 金海东;我国信用卡合同若干法律问题研究[D];延边大学;2011年

3 范晓雪;我国金融消费者权益保护问题研究[D];东北财经大学;2011年

4 王瑶;银行卡欺诈风险防控机制法律研究[D];广西大学;2011年

5 徐静;信用卡当事人民事责任研究[D];中国政法大学;2010年

6 黄松涛;信用卡交易中持卡人权益保护研究[D];扬州大学;2010年

7 杜娟;论信用卡消费者权益的保护[D];河北大学;2010年

8 鄢椤峦;信用卡消费者权利保护立法完善研究[D];西南大学;2012年

9 付晓飞;信用卡合同格式条款研究[D];南昌大学;2012年

10 郑磊;信用卡合同法律问题研究[D];复旦大学;2012年



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