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保险利益及其在海运货物保险中的判定

发布时间:2019-01-09 19:22
【摘要】: 保险利益在保险法上具有重要的地位,由于海上货物运输的复杂性,海上货物运输的保险利益问题更具有其特殊性;我国2009年修订的保险法纠正了2003年修订版的保险法中对保险利益的归属对象和存在时点的规定的缺陷,将保险利益界定为“投保人或者被保险人对保险标的具有的法律上承认的利益”。在该定义中,如何判断是否具有法律上承认的利益,在理论和实务中均不易把握。本文通过对保险利益的功能、定义和学说观点等问题进行论述,并对FOB、CFR和CIF这三种常用的贸易条件下海上货物运输保险中的保险利益的相关问题进行了探讨,旨在对我国的海上保险立法提出一些有益的建议。 本文一共分三部分: 第一部分,保险利益的概述。首先简要地论述了保险利益的产生及其功能,然后重点放在对保险利益的定义和学说观点的探讨上,通过分析和比较两大法系的立法的规定和学者对保险利益的观点的异同,得出自己的一点看法。在这一部分,笔者还根据我国海商法对保险标的的分类,结合海上货物运输实务,尝试对海上货物运输的保险利益进行了列举式分类,一方面是为了对海上保险利益有进一步的了解,另一方面是为了避免本部分脱离海上货物运输孤立地讨论保险利益。 第二部分,保险利益在海运货物保险中的判定。在FOB和CFR贸易条件下,均由买方购买保险,而越过装货港船舷前的风险由卖方负担,故这一阶段买方无保险利益;卖方因没有购买保险也不具有保险利益。笔者通过对这种情况下保险利益问题进行分析,提出了一些保护买卖方利益的可能的解决方案。另外还对FOB、CFR和CIF贸易价格条件下违约时的保险利益问题进行了分析探讨。 第三部分,我国海运货物保险的立法完善。在前两部分论述的基础上,建议我国海上保险立法对保险利益的判断采用经济利益判断准则,以及对FOB、CFR和CIF贸易条件下的保险利益问题做出一些特殊规定。
[Abstract]:Insurance interest plays an important role in insurance law. Because of the complexity of sea cargo transportation, the issue of insurance interest in sea cargo transportation has its particularity. The insurance law revised in 2009 corrects the defects in the insurance law revised in 2003 about the object of ownership of insurance interests and the point in existence. The insurance interest is defined as the legally recognized interest of the insured or insured on the subject matter of insurance. In this definition, it is difficult to judge whether there are legally recognized interests in both theory and practice. In this paper, the functions, definitions and theoretical viewpoints of insurance interests are discussed, and the related problems of insurance interests in marine cargo insurance under three common trade conditions, FOB,CFR and CIF, are discussed. The purpose is to put forward some beneficial suggestions to the marine insurance legislation of our country. This paper is divided into three parts: the first part, the overview of insurance interests. First, it briefly discusses the emergence and function of insurance interest, then focuses on the discussion of the definition of insurance interest and the theoretical point of view, through the analysis and comparison of the legislative provisions of the two legal systems and the similarities and differences of scholars' views on insurance interests. Come up with a point of view. In this part, according to the classification of the subject matter of insurance in the maritime law of our country, combined with the practice of carriage of goods by sea, the author tries to enumerate the interests of insurance in the carriage of goods by sea. On the one hand, it aims to have a better understanding of the marine insurance interests, and on the other hand, to avoid discussing insurance interests in isolation from the maritime cargo transport. The second part, the judgment of insurance interest in marine cargo insurance. Under the trade conditions of FOB and CFR, the buyer buys insurance, and the risk of crossing the port of loading is borne by the seller. Therefore, the buyer has no insurance interest at this stage, nor does the seller have insurance interest because he has not bought insurance. By analyzing the problem of insurance interest in this case, the author puts forward some possible solutions to protect the interests of buyers and sellers. In addition, the problem of insurance benefits under the trade price condition of FOB,CFR and CIF is analyzed and discussed. The third part, our country marine cargo insurance legislation consummation. On the basis of the first two parts, it is suggested that China's marine insurance legislation should adopt the criterion of economic interests in judging the interests of insurance, and make some special provisions on the issue of insurance interests under the trade conditions of FOB,CFR and CIF.
【学位授予单位】:兰州大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2009
【分类号】:D922.284;D922.294

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