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试航新造船碰撞之海事赔偿责任限制权利研究

发布时间:2019-01-11 20:50  文章来源:笔耕文化传播
【摘要】: 本文围绕新造船舶在试航过程中发生碰撞事故后,相关当事人是否享有海事赔偿责任限制权利之问题展开了一系列研究探讨。 为了明确试航阶段的船舶是否可以适用海事赔偿责任限制制度,本文对以下三个基础性问题进行了分析,即:试航中新造船舶的法律地位如何,是否属于《海商法》所调整的船舶;新造船舶一旦在试航过程中发生事故(本文主要针对碰撞事故进行研究),如何去识别该船舶背后真正的责任主体——建造方还是买方;该责任主体,尤其是对船舶建造方而言,是否有权享受《海商法》中的海事赔偿责任限制权利。 本文除引言和结论外,共分为四章。 第一章在明确试航的概念、条件、内容、目的的基础之上,分析了新造船舶试航的特点和试航的法律效果。 第二章根据船舶建造流程和建造工艺,分析了《中华人民共和国海商法》所调整的“海船”和“建造中船舶”的内涵和外延,进而明确《海商法》所调整的船舶是否包括试航中的新造船舶。 第三章以海上侵权中最典型的形式——船舶碰撞为研究对象。为了给第四章的海事赔偿责任限制权利作铺垫,本章将研究范围限定为对新造船舶碰撞承担责任的主体,对《海商法》和《侵权责任法》下的相关责任主体进行界定和识别。 第四章为本文的研究重点。在第二章、第三章对试航新造船舶的法律地位、新造船舶背后的责任主体进行分析的基础之上,本章对比海事赔偿责任限制制度下适格的船舶和责任主体阐述了新造船舶是否可以适用海事赔偿责任限制制度的问题。 本文采用了历史解释、目的解释、文理解释等法律解释方法,以及对国际公约、国外立法例的比较分析方法,明确了我国《海商法》所调整的船舶应当包括试航中的新造船舶。一旦新造船舶在试航中发生海上侵权事故,可以通过船舶登记、造船合同的约定和性质来识别船舶所有人,通过雇主责任理论来识别船舶的管理人或者占有人,进而明确侵权事故的责任主体。根据本文对船舶和责任主体的界定,试航中的新造船舶在我国《海商法》下应当有条件的适用海事赔偿责任限制制度。在碰撞关系中以船舶管理人的身份出现的造船人在我国《海商法》下虽然不享有海事赔偿责任限制权利,但是,从海事赔偿责任限制制度产生的历史背景,以及赋予造船人责任限制权利对造船业和保险业的影响来分析,即使作为管理人,法律也应当赋予其该种权利。
[Abstract]:In this paper, a series of researches are carried out on whether the parties concerned enjoy the right of limitation of liability for maritime claims after the collision accident occurred during the trial voyage of a newly built ship. In order to make clear whether the ship in trial stage can apply the limitation system of maritime claim liability, this paper analyzes the following three basic problems, namely: what is the legal status of the new ship during the trial voyage? Whether or not it is a ship regulated by the Maritime Law; Once a new ship has an accident in the course of trial (this paper mainly focuses on the collision accident), how to identify the real responsible subject behind the ship-the builder or the buyer; Whether the subject of liability, especially to the shipbuilder, is entitled to the limitation of liability in Maritime Law. In addition to the introduction and conclusions, this paper is divided into four chapters. On the basis of defining the concept, condition, content and purpose of the trial voyage, the first chapter analyzes the characteristics of the new ship trial and the legal effect of the trial voyage. The second chapter analyzes the connotation and extension of "ship" and "ship under construction" adjusted by the Maritime Law of the people's Republic of China according to the ship construction process and construction technology. Furthermore, it is clear whether the ships regulated by the Maritime Law include the new ships under trial. The third chapter focuses on ship collision, which is the most typical form of maritime tort. In order to pave the way for the limitation of liability for maritime claims in Chapter IV, this chapter limits the scope of the study to the subject responsible for the collision of newly built ships, and defines and identifies the relevant subjects of liability under the Maritime Code and the Tort liability Law. The fourth chapter is the focus of this paper. On the basis of the analysis of the legal status of the new ship, the main body of responsibility behind the new ship, In this chapter, the problem of whether the new ship can be applied to the limitation system of maritime claim liability is discussed by comparing the suitable ships and the subject of liability under the limitation system of maritime liability. This paper adopts the methods of historical interpretation, purpose interpretation, literary interpretation, and comparative analysis of international conventions and foreign legislative examples. It is clear that the ships regulated in Maritime Law of China should include the newly built ships in the trial voyage. Once a new ship has an accident of maritime tort during the trial voyage, the owner can be identified by the agreement and nature of the ship registration and shipbuilding contract, and the manager or occupant of the ship can be identified by the theory of employer's liability. Furthermore, the subject of liability for tort accident is clarified. According to the definition of the ship and the subject of responsibility in this paper, the newly built ship in the trial voyage should apply the limitation system of maritime liability under the maritime law of our country. Shipbuilders who appear as ship managers in collision relations do not enjoy the right to limit liability for maritime claims under China's Maritime Law, but from the historical background of the system of limitation of liability for maritime claims. And to analyze the influence on shipbuilding industry and insurance industry by granting shipbuilders the right to limit liability, even as administrator, the law should also grant this right to shipbuilders.
【学位授予单位】:大连海事大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2010
【分类号】:D922.294;D923

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