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《钦定大清商律》探析

发布时间:2019-01-12 11:53
【摘要】:中国法制的近现代化是以商法的近现代为开端的。《钦定大清商律》作为中国法制近现代化的第一项成果,其出台有着深厚的政治、历史背景。迈出了中国法制变革的第一步,不仅在内容上将近现代公司中的“股东会”“董事局”“有限责任制度”等引进中国,在体例上一改中华法系“诸法合体”“民邢不分”的结构,而且打破了封建统治者“重农抑商”传统。使清末资本主义工商业的发展得到了保障,极大地促进了晚清商品经济的发展,可谓意义重大。本着求真务实的态度和科学的方法,本人通过研究和探索去发现《钦定大清商律》出台的历史动因,具体颁布过程,对《钦定大清商律》的具体内容进行了简要剖析并结合当代以《钦定大清商律》对现代商法的启示作为本文的结尾。本文的研究思路和具体内容大致如下: 除了引言部分和结语部分之外,共分为三个部分。第一部分为《钦定大清商律》的产生,具体分析立法者颁布《钦定大清商律》各种原因。其中外部动因包括以下几个方面:社会与政治变动对原有法制体系的冲击;“以商立国”“商战救国”思想的兴起;民族工商业的产生和发展。内部动因包括:收回领事裁判权和缓解财政危机。在分析完产生原因之后,结合史实详细阐明《钦定大清商律》的立法过程,将其具体制定过程完整有序的呈现出来。 第二部分,《钦定大清商律》的主要内容和简要评析是文章的重点。分别介绍《钦定大清商律》的两个具体部分:类似总则部分的《商人通例》和《公司律》去详细阐明其结构、条款。并对其内容作出有深度剖析,以正反两个方面即“开创性”和“局限性”全面客观的分析评论《钦定大清商律》。积极方面有:接受了主体地位平等、意思自治原则;继受了大陆法系的有限责任制度;构建了现代公司运营管理模式;形成了全新的法律体系,缺点和不足有:缺乏现代民法理论支撑;编排分类粗糙;制度不科学;实践中没有得到遵守。在分析完“不足”之后,再次结合《钦定大清商律》及其当时的社会背景,,对《钦定大清商律》存在诸多不足的原因进行挖掘。虽然有着诸多不足,但本文仍然对《钦定大清商律》持肯定的态度。 第三部分,《钦定大清商律》对现代商法的启示。通过第二部分分析出的不足原因,结合当代实际总结出《钦定大清商律》对现代商法的启示。要适应商品经济的发展,适时的主动制定相关商事法律;科学的立法,必须建立在深入的法学理论研究基础之上;法律的制定要深思熟虑谨慎而行;法律现代化过程中应注重本土化。
[Abstract]:The near modernization of China's legal system begins with the modern commercial law. As the first achievement of the modernization of China's legal system, it has a profound political and historical background. The first step in the reform of China's legal system was not only to introduce the "shareholders' meeting," the board of directors, "and the" limited liability system "of modern and modern companies into China. On the other hand, it changed the structure of "combination of all laws" and "not divided between the people" in the Chinese law system, and broke the tradition of "emphasizing agriculture and restraining commerce" of feudal rulers. The development of capitalist industry and commerce in the late Qing Dynasty was guaranteed and greatly promoted the development of commodity economy in the late Qing Dynasty. With a pragmatic attitude and a scientific approach, I have studied and explored to find out the historical reasons for the introduction of the "Imperial Qing Dynasty Law of Commerce" and the specific promulgation process. This paper briefly analyzes the concrete contents of "Qing Dynasty Shang Law" and concludes this article with the enlightenment to modern commercial law of "Qing Dynasty Shang Law". The research ideas and specific contents of this paper are as follows: in addition to the introduction and the conclusion, it is divided into three parts. The first part is the emergence of the Qing Dynasty Shang Law, and analyzes the reasons for the legislator promulgating the Qing Dynasty Shang Law. The external motivation includes the following aspects: the impact of social and political changes on the original legal system; the rise of the idea of "building a country by commerce" and "saving the country from commercial warfare"; and the emergence and development of national industry and commerce. Internal motives include: recovering consular jurisdiction and alleviating financial crisis. After the analysis of the reasons, combined with historical facts, the legislative process of the Qing Dynasty Law of Qing Dynasty is expounded in detail, and the concrete formulation process is presented in a complete and orderly manner. In the second part, the main contents and brief comments are the emphases of the article. This paper introduces two specific parts of the Commercial Law of the Qing Dynasty: the General rules of Merchants, similar to the General rules, and the Law of Company to elaborate on its structure and terms. This paper also makes a deep analysis of its contents, and makes a comprehensive and objective analysis of "originality" and "limitation" in both positive and negative aspects. The positive aspects include: accepting the principle of equality of subject status, autonomy of will, following the limited liability system of continental law system, constructing modern company operation and management model; Formed a new legal system, shortcomings and shortcomings: lack of modern civil law theory support; rough arrangement of classification; system is not scientific; practice has not been complied with. After analyzing the "deficiency", combined with "Qing Dynasty Shang Law" and its social background at that time, this paper excavates the reasons for the deficiency of "Qing Dynasty Shang Law". Although there are many shortcomings, this paper still holds a positive attitude to the Qing Dynasty Law of Qing Dynasty. The third part, the enlightenment to modern commercial law of Qing Dynasty. Through the analysis of the second part of the reasons for the shortcomings, combined with the contemporary reality summed up the "Qing Dynasty Law of Qing Dynasty" to modern commercial law enlightenment. In order to adapt to the development of commodity economy, we should take the initiative to formulate relevant commercial laws; scientific legislation must be established on the basis of deep research on the theory of law; In the process of legal modernization, attention should be paid to localization.
【学位授予单位】:西南政法大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2013
【分类号】:D929

【参考文献】

相关期刊论文 前3条

1 王志华;中国商法百年(1904-2004)[J];比较法研究;2005年02期

2 陈琳;;中国社会主义现代化建设法律保障体系的新思考[J];商品与质量;2012年S3期

3 史洪智;;新政初期的商部创设与商律编订[J];中山大学学报(社会科学版);2008年05期



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