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论海盗赎金的共同海损法律属性

发布时间:2019-01-12 14:31  文章来源:笔耕文化传播
【摘要】:近几年来,海盗行为愈发猖獗,海盗劫持船舶已经成为威胁国际航运安全的重要因素。海盗劫持船舶的主要目的是强索赎金,虽然在联合国的号召下,包括中国在内的数十个国家派出军舰在亚丁湾和索马里海域护航,但是从新闻报道中我们可以得知海盗劫船事件还是屡屡发生。实际上,大多数劫船事件最终都以向海盗支付赎金的方式解决。鉴于国际法律领域对海盗赎金的法律属性尚无定论,船东、货主及保险公司之间经常因此引起纠纷。 不论是国际通用的《约克-安特卫普规则》,还是我国制定的《北京理算规则》,都没有将海盗赎金明确纳入到共同海损理算的范畴。只有英国保险市场承认支付海盗赎金的合法性将其作为共同海损处理。《中华人民共和国海商法》中将共同海损作为单独章节列明,但海盗赎金没有列入共同海损,且海盗赎金问题完全没有涉及。 本文认为船东支付海盗赎金的行为符合共同海损的构成要件。海盗赎金作为共同海损在船东与货主之间合理分摊,有利于分散海上风险,符合共同海损制度的价值。如果海盗赎金作为共同海损,则船东和货主可以通过购买保险的方式转移风险。而对于保险人来说,以共同海损的形式承担海盗赎金的理赔,可以避免船舶和货物的全损理赔,相对而言是更优选择。虽然一些国家对支付海盗赎金行为的合法性有争议,但是在实践中,部分国家的政府出于保护公民生命的考量,在无其他有效方式遏制海盗犯罪的情形下,对船东支付赎金的行为通常采取默许的态度。海运发达的英国、美国、德国、荷兰已经率先通过司法判例或立法认可了海盗赎金的共同海损属性,他们的经验值得我国司法界借鉴。 从国际航运业所面临的实际环境分析,在未来的一段时间里,船东通过支付海盗赎金解救船舶和货物的做法还会存在。我国法律界应尽快统一认识,明确海盗赎金的共同海损法律属性,为海盗赎金的责任分摊提供相应的法律支持。
[Abstract]:In recent years, piracy has become increasingly rampant, pirate hijacking of ships has become an important factor threatening the safety of international shipping. The main purpose of pirate hijackings is to demand ransom, although dozens of countries, including China, have sent warships to escort the Gulf of Aden and the waters off Somalia at the UN's call. But we can tell from the news reports that pirate robberies still occur frequently. In fact, most ship robberies are ultimately resolved by paying ransom to pirates. Since there is no conclusion on the legal nature of pirate ransom in the international legal field, disputes often arise between shipowners, shippers and insurance companies. Neither the "York-Antwerp rule" or the "Beijing adjustment rule" made by our country has brought the pirate ransom into the category of general average adjustment. Only the British insurance market recognizes the legality of the payment of ransoms for pirates and treats them as general average. General average is listed as a separate section in the Maritime Law of the people's Republic of China, but pirate ransom is not included in the general average. And the issue of pirate ransoms is completely untouched. This paper holds that the ship owners' payment of pirate ransoms conforms to the constitutive requirements of general average. As a reasonable allocation of general average between ship owner and consignor, pirate ransom is helpful to disperse the risk at sea and accord with the value of general average system. If pirate ransoms are used as general average, shipowners and consignors can transfer risk by taking out insurance. For the insurer, it is better to pay the pirate ransom in the form of general average, which can avoid the total loss of ship and cargo. Although some countries have disputed the legality of paying piracy ransoms, in practice, some governments, in order to protect the lives of their citizens, have no other effective way to curb piracy crimes. A tacit attitude is usually taken towards the payment of ransom by shipowners. The United Kingdom, the United States, Germany and the Netherlands have taken the lead in recognizing the general average attribute of pirate ransoms through judicial precedent or legislation, and their experience is worthy of reference by the judicial circles of our country. From the analysis of the actual environment faced by the international shipping industry, ship owners will still be able to rescue ships and cargo by paying pirate ransoms for some time to come. The legal profession of our country should unify the understanding as soon as possible, make clear the general average legal attribute of the pirate ransom, and provide the corresponding legal support for the responsibility sharing of the pirate ransom.
【学位授予单位】:大连海事大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2012
【分类号】:D922.294

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