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论国际货物买卖中保险利益归属的法律问题

发布时间:2019-02-11 21:49  文章来源:笔耕文化传播
【摘要】:保险利益原则适用于海上保险合同,其关系到保险合同的效力和保险事故发生后被保险人能否向保险人要求赔偿金。而在国际货物买卖中,由买方或者卖方为货物投保。如果被保险人在保险事故发生时没有保险利益,那被保险人就无法向保险人要求赔偿。所以深入探究保险事故发生时,保险利益的归属不仅对于买卖双方正确投保有指导性作用,而且对于正确适用保险利益原则及完善相关立法都有重要作用。 本文在第一章里对保险利益原则进行了讨论。通过分析1906年英国海上保险法中第五条对海上保险利益的定义的规定及Lucena V. Craufurd等英国经典案例后得出,保险利益是指与保险标的存在的合法的经济利害关系。1906年英国海上保险法中还明确了认定被保险人必须具备保险利益的时间为保险事故发生时而非投保时。而我国海商法并没有明确确立这一原则,只能从我国保险法中关于财产险的相关规定中总结出这一结论。此外,在本章的第三节还讨论了海上保险利益的归属与风险转移的关系。 本文第二章中讨论了《联合国货物销售合同公约》框架下保险利益归属的法律问题。根据上文讨论的保险利益归属于风险承担者原则,本章讨论了风险负担的一般规则及违约后风险负担的相关规则。一般来说,CISG对于风险转移采取了交付主义,保险利益随着风险转移而转移。但是,当出现买方违约或卖方违约时,风险转移可能受到影响,相应的保险利益的归属也受到影响。 本文第三章讨论了英国货物买卖法中风险转移的规则及保险利益的归属。我国在起草海上保险法时对英国海上保险法相关规则多有借鉴,,而英国作为海上贸易的传统强国,它有自己的货物买卖法(Sale of Goods Act1979),英国也不是CISG的缔约国,研究其货物买卖法中风险转移的规则与CISG进行对比,对于未来国际立法与实践也有相当大的意义。 本文第四章以FOB、CIF和CFR为代表讨论了Incoterms2010下保险利益的归属。对在以上价格术语下买方及卖方投保以规避货物风险提出了相应的建议,以使买卖双方避免出现保险上的“盲区”。 本文第五章对中国法律框架下对于保险利益的相关规定进行了讨论并对中国未来相关立法的提出了建议。
[Abstract]:The principle of insurance interest is applicable to marine insurance contract, which relates to the validity of insurance contract and whether the insured can claim compensation from the insurer after the occurrence of insurance accident. In the international sale of goods, the buyer or seller insured the goods. If the insured does not have an insurable interest when the insured accident occurs, the insured cannot claim compensation from the insurer. Therefore, when the insurance accident occurs, the ownership of insurance benefits not only has a guiding role for both buyers and sellers to insure correctly, but also plays an important role in the correct application of the principle of insurance interests and the improvement of relevant legislation. In the first chapter, the principle of insurance interest is discussed. Based on the analysis of the definition of marine insurance interest in the fifth article of the 1906 British Marine Insurance Act and the classic cases of England such as Lucena V. Craufurd, it is concluded that, Insurance interest refers to the legal economic interest with the subject matter of insurance. 1906 British marine insurance law also clearly determines that the insured must have insurance interest when the insurance accident occurs rather than when insured. But the maritime law of our country has not established this principle clearly, can only sum up this conclusion from the relevant regulation of property insurance in the insurance law of our country. In addition, in the third section of this chapter, the relationship between the attribution of marine insurance benefits and risk transfer is discussed. The second chapter discusses the legal issues of the attribution of insurance interests under the framework of the United Nations Convention on contracts for the Sale of goods. According to the principle of ascription of insurance benefits to risk bearers discussed above, this chapter discusses the general rules of risk burden and the relevant rules of risk burden after default. Generally speaking, CISG adopts the principle of delivery for risk transfer, and the insurance benefits shift with the risk transfer. However, when the buyer breaks the contract or the seller defaults, the risk transfer may be affected, and the ownership of the corresponding insurance benefits will also be affected. Chapter three discusses the rules of risk transfer and the ascription of insurance benefits in British law of sale and purchase of goods. When drafting marine insurance law, our country draws lessons from the relevant rules of British maritime insurance law, and Britain, as a traditional power of maritime trade, has its own law on the sale of goods (Sale of Goods Act1979), and Britain is not a contracting state of CISG. It is of great significance for the future international legislation and practice to study the rules of risk transfer in the law of sale of goods and compare them with CISG. In the fourth chapter, we discuss the attribution of insurance interest under Incoterms2010 on behalf of FOB,CIF and CFR. In order to avoid the "blind spot" in insurance, the buyer and seller have put forward some suggestions to avoid the risk of goods under the above price terms. The fifth chapter discusses the relevant provisions of insurance interests under the framework of Chinese law and puts forward some suggestions on the relevant legislation of China in the future.
【学位授予单位】:华东政法大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2012
【分类号】:D996.1

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