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滞期费研究

发布时间:2019-05-21 12:10
【摘要】: 滞期费纠纷是航次租船下发生频率最频繁的纠纷态势之一。本文从滞期费争议所涉及的滞期费的概念与性质、计算、索赔与时效等几个重要方面着手,结合最新判例,深入阐述航次租船业务中滞期费相关的一些法律问题。 除引言和结论外,本文共分四章。 第一章是滞期费与延期损失辨析,主要阐述滞期费与延期损失的概念、性质及其二者的区别。滞期费是在航次租船合同中约定承租人因未能在规定的装卸期限内完成货物装卸作业产生了船舶延误而向出租人支付的一笔款项,它是一种约定的损害赔偿。滞期费之所以不是违约金不是因为其不具有惩罚性,而是滞期费的支付需要出租人存在实际的损失,但由于其具有约定性,所以出租人对于损失无需举证。滞期费不同于延滞损失,延滞损失是指某些原因使船舶留滞在港口或使船舶航行时间延长而应由承租人赔偿给出租人的一种非约定性损失赔偿,它一般要高于滞期费。 第二章是滞期费的计算,本章主要阐述与滞期时间紧密联系的装卸时间的计算,包括装卸时间的起算、中断与除外条款;以及滞期费的计算。笔者认为预先递交的通知书无效不能起算装卸时间;在没有递交装卸准备就绪通知书情况下,装卸时间从实际装货之时起算;联检手续不影响装卸准备就绪通知书的递交。 第三章是滞期费的索赔,租船合同下承租人是滞期费的责任人,但是提单的出现,使滞期费的问题更加复杂,承租人不是唯一的责任人,在租船合同并入提单的情况下,提单下的各方当事人都有可能需要对滞期费负责,包括托运人、提单持有人或者收货人。留置权是出租人进行滞期费索赔的重要途径,责任终止与留置权是共存一体的,如果出租人没有一个有效能够行使的留置权,承租人的责任也不终止。出租人应正确行使留置权。基于我国《海商法》中第87关于留置权的规定不甚合理,笔者建议《海商法》修改时,和《合同法》中关于留置权的规定相一致,同时出租人在索赔的过程中须注意其时效的问题。 第四章是完善我国滞期费制度的建议,笔者建议滞期费制度应该明确规定滞期费及其相关概念、装卸时间的计算、留置权的行使和时效等问题,并提出制度构想。
[Abstract]:Demurrage dispute is one of the most frequent disputes under voyage charter. Starting from several important aspects, such as the concept and nature of demurrage fee involved in the dispute of demurrage fee, calculation, claim and limitation, combined with the latest cases, this paper expounds some legal issues related to demurrage fee in voyage charter business. In addition to the introduction and conclusion, this paper is divided into four chapters. The first chapter is the discrimination between demurrage fee and deferred loss, which mainly expounds the concept, nature and difference between demurrage fee and deferred loss. Demurrage fee is a sum of money paid by the charterer to the shipowner for failing to complete the cargo loading and unloading operation within the prescribed loading and unloading time. It is a kind of agreed damages. The reason why demurrage fee is not breach of contract is not because it is not punitive, but the payment of demurrage fee requires the lessor to have the actual loss, but because of its contractual nature, the lessor does not need to prove the loss. The demurrage fee is different from the delay loss, which refers to a kind of non-contractual loss compensation which should be compensated by the charterer to the lessor for some reasons that make the ship stay at the port or prolong the sailing time of the ship, which is generally higher than the demurrage fee. The second chapter is the calculation of demurrage fee. This chapter mainly expounds the calculation of loading and unloading time which is closely related to the demurrage time, including the starting calculation of loading and unloading time, interruption and exception clause, and the calculation of demurrage fee. The author thinks that the advance notice is invalid and can not start the loading and unloading time; in the absence of the loading and unloading preparation notice, the loading and unloading time starts from the actual loading time; the joint inspection procedure does not affect the submission of the loading and unloading preparation notice. The third chapter is the claim for demurrage fee. Under the charter party, the charterer is the responsible person for demurrage fee, but the emergence of bill of lading makes the problem of demurrage fee more complicated. The charterer is not the only person responsible. Under the condition that the charter contract is incorporated into the bill of lading, All parties under the bill of lading may be liable for demurrage fees, including the shipper, the holder of the bill of lading or the consignee. Lien is an important way for the lessor to claim demurrage. Liability termination and lien coexist. If the lessor does not have an effective lien, the lessee's liability will not terminate. The lessor shall exercise the lien correctly. In view of the fact that the provisions of lien in Maritime Law 87 of our country are not very reasonable, the author suggests that when the Maritime Law is amended, it is consistent with the provisions of contract Law on lien. At the same time, the lessor should pay attention to the limitation of time in the process of claim. The fourth chapter is the suggestion of perfecting the demurrage fee system in our country. The author suggests that the demurrage fee system should clearly stipulate the demurrage fee and its related concepts, the calculation of loading and unloading time, the exercise and limitation of lien, and puts forward the system conception.
【学位授予单位】:厦门大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2008
【分类号】:D923.6;D922.294

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