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海上保险委付基本问题研究

发布时间:2019-06-24 11:02
【摘要】: 本文分为四章,首先阐释了正确认识委付性质的意义,介绍了我国学者对其性质的不同认识,继而从委付的词源开始介绍了英国法官对委付的概念性质的界定,并介绍了各国的相关法律规定,得出结论认为不论是在英美国家的海上保险法律中还是在大陆法系的相关海上保险法律中,委付都倾向于是一种双方法律行为。在英美法中,不存在和大陆法系民法中相对应的单方或双方行为的概念。对abandonment\abandon理解上的不同,是导致我国学者对委付性质的不同认识的原因,而对abandonment一词,既可理解为转让,也可理解为抛弃,或者一种通知,这在英国也是容易产生歧义的。委付通知和委付应当区分,,委付通知作为一种要约当然是被保险人的单方行为而委付合同则必然是双方行为。在我国委付经常被认为是被保险人的权利,是为保护被保险人的利益而设,本文认为委付是被保险人为索求全额保险赔付而必须承担的一项义务,委付是保险人的权利,是为保险人的利益而创设。 在第二章,论述了委付的前提,考查了英国的判例,认为推定全损和实际全损都是委付的前提条件,不同的是在推定全损下被保险人需要发出委付通知。委付的过程因为前提的不同而不同,在推定全损下产生的委付效果和实际全损下产生的委付效果所依据的法律规定不同。由于在推定全损下,委付涉及的法律关系远远较实际全损下的委付复杂,所以人们会更加注意推定全损下的委付,一般所说的委付是指推定全损下的委付。 第三章,论述了委付通知性质形式、目的、例外和效果,并运用案例说明其在委付制度中的重要作用,同时也对委付通知只以推定全损为前提提出反思。 第四章,论述了委付的效果,考查了保险人接受委付的效果和不接受委付的效果,同时对学界多认为保险人有两次机会获得保险标的的所有权的说法提出质疑。文章对海上保险中与委付相关的概念—代位求偿进行了论述,分析了二者的区别,以及保险人接受委付并作出全损赔偿情况下代位求偿原理的适用,以此界定委付所转移的权利范围。 最后对文章进行了总结,委付的设立目的在于在推定全损下被保险人追求全损赔付时维护保险人的利益,这也是保险补偿原则的要求,但在这一过程中,它并没有矫枉过正,而是在倾向于保险人的前提下注重对双方权利义务的平衡。同时文章对我国海商法的相关规定进行了评析,指出了不足并提出了修改的意见。
[Abstract]:This paper is divided into four chapters. First, it explains the significance of correctly understanding the nature of the commission, introduces the different understanding of its nature by Chinese scholars, and then introduces the definition of the concept and nature of the commission by British judges from the etymology of the commission, and introduces the relevant legal provisions of various countries, and draws the conclusion that whether in the marine insurance law of Anglo-American countries or in the relevant marine insurance laws of the civil law system, The commission tends to be a legal act of both parties. In Anglo-American law, there is no concept of unilateral or bilateral behavior corresponding to civil law in civil law. The difference in understanding of abandonment\ abandon is the reason why Chinese scholars have different understandings of the nature of abandonment, and the word abandonment can be understood as transfer, abandonment, or a kind of notice, which is also prone to ambiguity in the United Kingdom. Notice of abandonment should be distinguished from abandonment. Notice of abandonment, as an offer, is, of course, a unilateral act of the insured, while a contract of abandonment is bound to be an act of both parties. In our country, abandonment is often regarded as the rights of the insured and is set up to protect the interests of the insured. This paper holds that the abandonment is an obligation that the insured must undertake in order to claim full insurance payment, and the abandonment is the right of the insurer and created for the interests of the insurer. In the second chapter, it discusses the premise of abandonment, examines the case law of the United Kingdom, and holds that both the presumptive total loss and the actual total loss are the prerequisites for the abandonment, the difference is that the insured needs to give notice of abandonment under the presumptive total loss. The process of commission varies according to the premise, and the legal provisions on the basis of the abandonment effect under the presumptive total loss and the actual total loss are different. Because the legal relationship involved in the total loss is much more complex than that under the actual total loss, people will pay more attention to the abandonment under the presumptive total loss, which generally refers to the abandonment under the presumptive total loss. In the third chapter, the nature, purpose, exception and effect of the notice of abandonment are discussed, and the important role of the notice in the system of abandonment is illustrated by a case. At the same time, it is also reflected on the premise that the notice of abandonment is only based on the assumption of total loss. The fourth chapter discusses the effect of the abandonment, examines the effect of the insurer accepting the abandonment and the effect of not accepting the abandonment, and questions the claim that the insurer has two opportunities to obtain the ownership of the subject matter insured. This paper discusses the concept of subrogation in marine insurance, and analyzes the difference between the two, as well as the application of the principle of subrogation under the condition that the insurer accepts the abandonment and makes the total loss compensation, so as to define the scope of the right transferred by the abandonment. Finally, the paper summarizes the article, the purpose of the establishment of the commission is to safeguard the interests of the insurer when the insured pursues the total loss payment under the presumptive total loss, which is also the requirement of the principle of insurance compensation, but in this process, it does not overcorrect, but pays attention to the balance of the rights and obligations of both parties under the premise of inclined to the insurer. At the same time, this paper comments on the relevant provisions of maritime law in China, points out the shortcomings and puts forward some suggestions for revision.
【学位授予单位】:山东大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2007
【分类号】:D912.28

【引证文献】

相关硕士学位论文 前1条

1 赵娜;海上保险法中推定全损的法律问题研究[D];大连海事大学;2011年



本文编号:2505009


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