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土地承包经营权流转纠纷解决机制研究

发布时间:2018-09-09 10:15  文章来源:笔耕文化传播
【摘要】:我国农村土地承包经营权的分散化和凝固化(即以家庭为单位享有但不得流转)是影响土地利用和掣肘农业生产发展的主要因素之一。实现土地有效利用目标的主要途径便在于土地流转。土地承包经营权流转法律制度在我国的确立经历了一个较长的历史过程。现在,土地承包经营权流转在我国农村已经成为一种普遍现象,流转形式很多,除了法定的转包、出租、互换、转让、入股、抵押六种形式,还有继承、代耕、信托、反租倒包和特殊租赁等流转形式。土地承包经营权的流转也带来了纠纷。有纠纷就需要相应的纠纷解决机制。对于农村土地承包经营权流转纠纷而言,纠纷解决机制的多元化是必要的。根据现行立法,我国土地承包经营权流转纠纷当事人可以通过四种途径解决争议:和解、调解、仲裁和诉讼。和解是一种自力救济方式,调解和仲裁是社会救济方式,而诉讼是公力救济方式。 调解在中国历史悠久,对于今天的农村土地承包经营权流转纠纷解决而言,调解的意义非常重大。在当前所有的纠纷解决方式中,当事人最倾向的纠纷解决方式还是村委会调解。村委会调解属于人民调解的范畴,人民调解在我国土地承包经营权流转纠纷的解决中发挥了巨大的作用。但是,我国当前的村委会调解中还存在行政主导、非正式性、调解协议的效力不足等问题。为了更好地发挥村委会调解的作用,有必要剔除村委会调解中的行政因素,保障当事人的合法权益,提升调解协议的效力。乡(镇)人民政府调解本质上是一种行政指导性质的具体行政行为,行政调解在土地承包经营权流转纠纷解决中能发挥积极的作用。但是,由于行政调解中不公正因素的存在,实践中通过这种途径解决的纠纷很少,为了克服行政调解的不公正,应当推行乡(镇)人民政府调解公开制度和完善乡(镇)人民政府调解程序。 2009年《农村土地承包经营纠纷调解仲裁法》的颁布从法律制度上正式确立了我国的农村土地承包仲裁制度,当前各地区正按照该法的规定组建农村土地承包仲裁委员会。土地承包经营纠纷仲裁具有受案范围特定、仲裁程序启动的单方性和可选择性、仲裁裁决的非终局性等特征。相对于村委会调解而言,仲裁更具权威性;相对于乡(镇)政府调解而言,仲裁更具公正性;相对于诉讼而言,仲裁也具有成本低、专业性、更具人性化等优点。但是,我国土地承包经营权流转纠纷仲裁制度也存在一些弊端:仲裁的行政化、仲裁有悖于当事人意思自治、仲裁程序诉讼化、仲裁裁决具有非终局性。我国土地承包仲裁制度的完善途径包括去行政化改造、尊重当事人的意思自治、简化仲裁程序、赋予仲裁裁决以终局效力、强调承包经营权流转纠纷仲裁与调解的结合,等等。 诉讼的基本目的之一就是解决纠纷,近些年来,诉讼在解决土地承包经营权流转纠纷中的作用进一步受到重视,司法审理土地承包经营权流转纠纷应当遵循“强调调解”的原则,调解也符合中国农村纠纷处理的传统。我国法院在审理土地承包经营权流转纠纷案件中尚需特别关注一些典型的问题:(1)流转协议效力的认定;(2)流转费用纠纷的处理;(3)流转约定不明类纠纷的处理;(4)入股纠纷的处理。从当前的情况来看,农村土地承包经营权流转纠纷通过诉讼途径解决的不多,特别是在偏远地区,诉讼的利用率更低。司法制度利用率低会带来如下问题:当事人的正当法定权利不一定能得到维护,纠纷也不一定能得到彻底解决。司法利用率低的原因除了传统的无讼和厌讼文化以及熟人社会的因素外,诉讼成本高和缺乏司法公正也是重要的原因。要提高我国土地承包经营权流转纠纷诉讼解决的利用率,就应当降低土地承包经营权流转纠纷当事人诉讼的成本,保障司法公正。
[Abstract]:The decentralization and solidification of rural land contractual management right in China (that is, the family as the unit enjoys but can not transfer) is one of the main factors affecting land use and hindering the development of agricultural production. Now, the transfer of land contractual management right has become a common phenomenon in the rural areas of China. There are many forms of transfer, including legal subcontracting, leasing, interchange, transfer, share-holding, mortgage, inheritance, farming, trust, anti-leasing and special leasing. According to the current legislation, there are four ways to resolve disputes: reconciliation, mediation, arbitration and litigation. Conciliation is a form of self-relief, mediation and arbitration are social relief, and litigation is public relief.
Mediation has a long history in China and is of great significance to the settlement of disputes over the transfer of contracted management rights of rural land. Among all the current dispute settlement methods, the most preferred one is the village committee mediation. However, there are still some problems in the current mediation of village committees, such as administrative dominance, informality, and the lack of effectiveness of mediation agreements. To enhance the effectiveness of the mediation agreement, the township (town) people's government mediation is essentially a specific administrative act of administrative guidance, and administrative mediation can play a positive role in the settlement of disputes over the transfer of land contractual management rights. In order to overcome the unfairness of administrative mediation, the system of public mediation of the township (town) people's government should be implemented and the mediation procedure of the township (town) people's government should be improved.
The promulgation of the Law on Conciliation and Arbitration of Disputes over Rural Land Contracting and Management in 2009 formally established China's rural land contract arbitration system from the legal system. At present, various regions are establishing rural land contract arbitration committees in accordance with the provisions of the Law. Compared with the village committee mediation, arbitration is more authoritative; compared with the township (town) government mediation, arbitration is more fair; compared with litigation, arbitration also has the advantages of low cost, professionalism and humanization. There are also some drawbacks in the arbitration system: the administration of arbitration, arbitration is contrary to Party autonomy, arbitration proceedings litigation, arbitration award is not final. It emphasizes the combination of arbitration and mediation in the transfer of contractual rights, and so on.
One of the basic purposes of litigation is to settle disputes. In recent years, the role of litigation in the settlement of disputes over the transfer of land contractual management rights has been further emphasized. Judicial adjudication of disputes over the transfer of land contractual management rights should follow the principle of "emphasizing mediation", and mediation also conforms to the tradition of rural dispute settlement in China. There are still some typical problems to be paid special attention to in the disputes over the transfer of land contractual management right: (1) the determination of the validity of the transfer agreement; (2) the settlement of the disputes over the transfer fees; (3) the settlement of the disputes of unknown type in the transfer agreement; (4) the settlement of the shareholding disputes. The low utilization rate of the judicial system will bring the following problems: the legitimate legal rights of the parties may not be safeguarded, and disputes may not be completely resolved. The reasons for the low utilization rate of the judiciary are in addition to the traditional culture of litigation-free and litigation-weary and the factors of acquaintance society. The high litigation cost and the lack of judicial justice are also important reasons. In order to improve the utilization rate of litigation settlement of land contractual management right transfer disputes in China, we should reduce the litigation cost of the parties involved in land contractual management right transfer disputes and ensure judicial justice.
【学位授予单位】:中南大学
【学位级别】:博士
【学位授予年份】:2012
【分类号】:D922.3;F321.1

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