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集体建设用地流转存在问题与完善建议研究

发布时间:2019-01-04 07:17  文章来源:笔耕文化传播
【摘要】:土地是人类赖以生存和发展的重要资源,土地资源的有限性和社会的不断发展存在矛盾之处。何让有限的土地资源发挥出最大的效用是科学发展无法回避的问题。我国对土地实行的是社会主义公有制,即土地国有制和农村土地集体所有制。对应两种所有制下的国家所有土地和集体所有土地,,现行法律和政策规定实行区别对待,即城乡土地“二元结构”。伴随着社会主义市场经济的持续发展和城市化与工业化的不断推进,这种“二元结构”对集体土地权利及其流转的限制导致实践中出现了诸多问题和矛盾。这些问题主要表现相对于国有土地而言集体土地所有权和使用权主体不明、权能受限以及缺乏相应的流转市场和有效的监管引导,直接导致的结果就是集体土地隐性流转、农民土地权益无法得到有效的保护。解决这些问题需要对集体土地相关制度进行改革。对于改革方向和具体措施的选择,学术界和各地的实践均进行了一些探讨并取得了一定的经验,即各地以地方规定和政策来对集体土地权利流转进行确认引导。但是由于地方规定和政策的效力以及稳定性均无法胜任从根本上对集体土地流转进行规范这一要求,打破城乡土地“二元结构”仍需进一步的努力。 本文第一部分主要对集体建设用地使用权和所有权的相关研究做了简要的概括。第二部分则是对集体建设用地流转相关概念和历史做了简述。第三部分主要从集体建设用地流转相关所有权制度和使用权制度着手对现状进行了分析,提出了集体建设用地流转现状中存在的问题。即存在集体土地所有权和使用权主体混乱、集体土地所有权和使用权权能受限导致隐性流转、集体建设用地流转市场缺失导致流转效率低下、对集体建设用地流转的管理和规制不足导致无法保护农民和使用权人利益等问题。第四部分则是针对存在的问题提出了在现阶段实际可行的完善建议。首先从法律层面明确集体土地所有权和使用权的权能主体以及权能内容,同时对集体土地流转做出明确的规定,然后建立城乡统一的土地市场,同时加强政府的引导和监管作用以保证土地市场的有效运行,最后完善农村社会保障制度以促进农村经济发展和现代化进程。
[Abstract]:Land is an important resource for human survival and development. There are contradictions between the limitation of land resources and the continuous development of society. How to make limited land resources play the greatest role is an unavoidable problem in scientific development. What our country implements to land is socialist public ownership, namely land state ownership and rural land collective ownership. According to the state owned land and collectively-owned land under two kinds of ownership, the existing laws and policies provide for different treatment, that is, the dual structure of urban and rural land. With the continuous development of socialist market economy and the promotion of urbanization and industrialization, the restriction of collective land rights and its circulation has led to many problems and contradictions in practice. These problems mainly show that the ownership and use right of collective land are not clear, the power is limited, and the corresponding circulation market and effective supervision and guidance are lacking, the direct result is the recessive circulation of collective land. Farmers' land rights and interests can not be effectively protected. To solve these problems, we need to reform the system of collective land. For the choice of reform direction and concrete measures, academic circles and local practices have made some discussions and gained some experience, that is, local regulations and policies are used to confirm and guide the circulation of collective land rights. However, because the effectiveness and stability of local regulations and policies are not up to the requirement of standardizing the collective land circulation fundamentally, further efforts are needed to break the dual structure of urban and rural land. The first part of this paper mainly summarizes the related research of collective construction land use right and ownership. The second part is the collective construction land transfer related concepts and history. The third part mainly from collective construction land transfer related ownership system and the system of right to use to carry on the analysis to the present situation, has proposed the collective construction land circulation present situation existence question. That is, the collective land ownership and the right to use the main confusion, collective land ownership and the power of the right to use due to recessive circulation, collective construction land transfer market lack resulting in inefficient circulation. Insufficient management and regulation of collective construction land circulation lead to problems such as failure to protect the interests of farmers and users. The fourth part is to put forward the practical and feasible suggestions for the existing problems. First of all from the legal level to clarify the collective land ownership and use rights of the subject and the content of power, at the same time, collective land circulation to make clear provisions, and then establish a unified urban and rural land market. At the same time, strengthen the guidance and supervision of the government to ensure the effective operation of the land market, and finally improve the rural social security system to promote the development of rural economy and the process of modernization.
【学位授予单位】:西南政法大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2012
【分类号】:D922.32

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