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论取得死者身上财物行为的定性

发布时间:2018-02-13 17:38  文章来源:笔耕文化传播

  本文关键词: 死者身上财物 刑法上的占有 推定占有 观念上占有 出处:《湘潭大学》2016年硕士论文 论文类型:学位论文


【摘要】:所谓取得死者身上财物行为是指行为人故意或者过失致人死亡之后临时起意取得死者身上财物或者与被害人死亡无因果关系的第三人取得死者身上财物的行为,该行为具有以下特征:一是取财行为主体已处于特殊状态或地位,是在其实施取财行为之前已实施故意或者过失致被害人死亡的行为主体或者是与被害人死亡无因果关系的第三人;二是取财主观意图是非法占有死者身上财物的意思或不法所有的意思,而非单纯毁弃;三是取财对象是死者身上财物。关于取得死者身上财物行为的定性,理论界和司法界存在争议,主要有盗窃罪说、侵占罪说和两分说这三种观点,盗窃罪说认为取得死者身上财物的行为构成盗窃罪,支持盗窃罪的具体理由包括死者占有、死者生前占有、继承人占有。侵占罪说认为取得死者身上财物行为成立侵占罪,支持该说的学者认为死者身上财物属于脱离占有物,而我国无脱离占有物侵占罪,但能通过对“遗忘物”作扩大解释,从而将该行为定性为侵占罪。两分说认为应根据取得死者身上财物行为的时间、地点具体分析。上述观点均有其合理性但是也存在不足之处。刑法上的占有是指对财物事实上的支配,不仅包括物理支配范围内的支配,而且包括社会观念上可以推知财物的支配人的状态。刑法上对财物事实上的支配也是能够根据社会一般观念进行判断的,刑法上占有也存在某些观念化的占有。推定占有是指以物本身的性质特点、存在的时间、地点以及和被继承人的关系等客观事实为依据,按照一般人观念判断对具体某财物是否已经成立占有。根据社会一般观念及具体基础事实从客观与主观要件两方面推定死者身上财物为继承人占有。对于死者财物属性,一般能够推定死者身上财物是由继承人占有的;但是在占有交替的场合,由于存在第三人占有死者身上财物,此时,取财行为侵犯第三人对财物的占有。同时也存在例外情形,取财行为侵犯了国家对该财物的占有,如果死者无继承人的情形,那么则推定该财物是由国家占有。故有因取财行为成立盗窃罪,而无因取财行为一般情况下成立盗窃罪,特殊情况下,属于脱离占有物侵占罪,而依我国刑法无法规制,那么该漏洞应交由立法机关处理。
[Abstract]:The so-called acquisition of property on the body of the deceased refers to the act of obtaining property on the body of the deceased or of a third person who has no causal relationship with the death of the victim after the perpetrator intentionally or negligently caused the death of a person, The behavior has the following characteristics: first, the subject of the act of taking money has been in a special state or status, It is the subject of the act of intentional or negligent death of the victim or the third person who has no causal relationship with the death of the victim before he carries out the act of taking money; Second, the subjective intention of taking money is the meaning of illegally possessing the property of the deceased or illegally possessing all the property, rather than simply destroying it; third, the object of taking money is the property of the deceased. Regarding the characterization of the behavior of acquiring the property of the deceased, There are disputes between the theoretical and judicial circles. There are three main points of view: theft, embezzlement and dichotomy. Theft claims that the act of obtaining the property of the deceased constitutes theft, and the specific reasons for supporting the theft include the possession of the deceased. Possession of the deceased before death, possession of the heirs. The theory of embezzlement holds that the act of obtaining the property of the deceased constitutes a crime of embezzlement. The scholars who support the theory believe that the property of the deceased belongs to the possession of the deceased, while the crime of embezzlement in our country is not separated from possession. However, it is possible to define the act as a crime of embezzlement by extending the interpretation of the "forgotten thing". Specific analysis of the location. The above views are reasonable but also have shortcomings. Possession in criminal law refers to the de facto control of property, not only within the scope of physical domination, It also includes the fact that the state of the person in charge of property can be inferred from the social concept. The de facto domination of property in criminal law can also be judged on the basis of the general concept of society. There are also some conceptualized possession in criminal law. The presumption of possession is based on the objective facts such as the nature of the thing itself, the time and place of existence, and the relationship with the heirs. According to the general concept of people to judge whether a specific property has been established or not. According to the general concept of society and concrete basic facts, the property of the deceased is presumed to be the heirs of the deceased from two aspects of objective and subjective elements. For the property of the deceased, It is generally possible to presume that the property of the deceased is in the possession of the heirs; but on the occasion of alternate possession, because of the existence of a third person in possession of the property of the deceased, the act of taking money infringes upon the possession of the property by the third person. At the same time, there are exceptions. The act of taking property infringes upon the possession of the property by the state. If the deceased has no heir, the property is presumed to be in the possession of the state. Under special circumstances, it belongs to the crime of embezzlement without possession and cannot be regulated according to the criminal law of our country, so the loophole should be dealt with by the legislature.
【学位授予单位】:湘潭大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2016
【分类号】:D924.3


本文编号:1508719


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