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论贿赂的外延—“交易对价说”概念之提倡

发布时间:2018-03-13 13:05  文章来源:笔耕文化传播

  本文选题:贿赂的外延 切入点:新型贿赂 出处:《重庆大学》2014年硕士论文 论文类型:学位论文


【摘要】:贿赂犯罪手段多样,在我国刑法中涉及条文较多,具有极其重要的地位。贿赂犯罪侵犯了社会对于职务廉洁性和公正性的一般信赖,破坏了社会正常秩序和公平价值,是人民群众关注的焦点,也是引发社会矛盾,破坏安定和谐的一个主要肇因。尤其是近年来见诸报端的一系列新型贿赂手段,其影响之恶劣,情节之严重,一次又一次挑战着人民群众的心理底线。然而由于现行法律对于贿赂外延的界定不明,使这些社会危害性极大的贿赂犯罪或钻法律的漏洞轻易逃脱制裁,或由于法无明文规定不得不以较轻的罪名草草结案,,长此以往,将不利于腐败现象的打击,损害人民群众对法律的认同感和敬畏感。 目前主要的贿赂外延学说有财物说、财产性利益说和不正当利益说。财物说将贿赂的外延限定于有形的财物,对罪刑法定原则的理解过于僵化,而无视财物之外的其他形式贿赂的社会危害性,丧失了法律的社会属性,已经被大部分学者抛弃。财产性利益说将这一外延拓宽至具有财产属性、可依货币计价的利益,但仍然不能解决现实中多发的新型贿赂。而不正当利益说虽然放弃了贿赂的财产属性,但在实际操作中又存在着种种困难。 综合考虑以上三种贿赂外延学说的利弊,笔者认为应当另辟蹊径,从贿赂的本质——交易入手,将贿赂的外延界定为“职务行为的交易对价”。贿赂之所以构成犯罪并非取决于交易的内容,而是交易这一行为。如果贿赂犯罪侵犯的法益是“职务行为的不可交易性”,那么贿赂的外延自然就应当是相对人用以交换权利人不正当行使职权这一行为的代价,即职务行为的交易对价。“交易对价说”揭示了贿赂犯罪的本质属性,在技术上具有稳定性,且并不违背刑法的谦抑性。在论证了其逻辑性、合理性和可行性后笔者又就其法律实现进行了初步构想,解决了交易对价说下的入罪标准、罪与非罪的界限、量刑标准和具体操作等问题。
[Abstract]:The crime of bribery, which involves many articles in the criminal law of our country, has a very important position. It infringes on the general trust of the society to the integrity and impartiality of the post, and destroys the normal order and the fair value of the society. It is the focus of the people's attention, and it is also a major cause of social contradictions and the destruction of stability and harmony. In particular, a series of new forms of bribery, which have appeared in the newspapers in recent years, have a bad influence and a serious plot. Time and again, it challenges the psychological bottom line of the people. However, because the definition of bribery extension in the current law is not clear, these crimes of bribery, which are extremely harmful to society, or exploit loopholes in the law, can easily escape punishment. Or because the law has no express stipulation that we have to settle the case with lesser charges, in the long run, it will be unfavorable to the fight against corruption, and will damage the people's sense of identity and awe to the law. At present, the main theories of bribery extension include property theory, property interest theory and improper interest theory. Property theory limits the extension of bribery to tangible property, and the understanding of the principle of legality is too rigid. While ignoring the social harm of other forms of bribery other than property and losing the social attribute of the law, it has been abandoned by most scholars. The property interest theory extends this extension to the interest with property property and can be valued according to currency. However, it still can not solve the problem of the new type of bribery, and the theory of improper interests, although it gives up the property attribute of bribery, has many difficulties in practice. Synthetically considering the advantages and disadvantages of the above three theories of bribery extension, the author thinks that a new way should be found, starting with the nature of bribery-the transaction. The extension of bribery is defined as "the transaction consideration of an act of duty". The reason why bribery constitutes a crime does not depend on the content of the transaction, If the legal interest of the bribery crime is "the non-tradable nature of the duty act", then the extension of the bribe should naturally be the price of the opposite party in exchange for the improper exercise of the authority by the right holder. "transaction consideration" reveals the essential attribute of the crime of bribery, is technically stable, and does not violate the modesty of criminal law. After the rationality and feasibility, the author has carried on the preliminary idea to its legal realization, has solved under the transaction to the consideration the crime standard, the crime and the non-crime boundary, the sentencing standard and the concrete operation and so on.
【学位授予单位】:重庆大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2014
【分类号】:D924.392

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