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论宪法禁止没收罪犯全部财产的正当性

发布时间:2019-01-05 17:54  文章来源:笔耕文化传播
【摘要】:为实现刑法之威慑和惩罚功能,古代国家法律将没收罪犯之全部财产作为刑罚适用。近代以来,虽然基于惩罚犯罪之必要,依照刑法规定之情形,可以适用没收罪犯财产之一部分,但多数国家的宪法规定禁止适用没收罪犯之全部财产。由于近代以来的立宪主义宪法以保护公民基本权利为首要价值,宪法对生命、自由和财产加以严格保护,因此,宪法往往规定刑事司法的基本原则,将宪法的价值植入刑事法之中,如宪法规定废除或者严格限制适用死刑、禁止刑讯逼供、罪刑法定、无罪推定等等。宪法明确禁止适用没收罪犯全部财产的刑罚,其正当性首先表现在透过宪法的禁止性规定,彰显对财产权以及财产继承权的保护;其次,表现在不以没收全部财产作为惩罚罪犯之手段,防止国家滥用刑罚权,避免适用报复性酷刑,以达到尊重个人人格的目的。
[Abstract]:In order to realize the function of deterrence and punishment of criminal law, the ancient state law applied the confiscation of all the criminals' property as punishment. Since modern times, according to the criminal law, part of the criminal property can be confiscated because of the necessity of punishing the crime, but the constitution of most countries forbids the confiscation of all the criminal property. Since the constitutionalist constitution of modern times takes the protection of the fundamental rights of citizens as the primary value and strictly protects life, freedom and property, it often stipulates the basic principles of criminal justice. The value of the constitution is embedded in the criminal law, such as the abolition or strict restriction of the death penalty, the prohibition of extorting confessions by torture, the legality of the crime, the presumption of innocence and so on. The constitution explicitly forbids the punishment of confiscating all the criminals' property, the legitimacy of which is first manifested in the protection of property rights and property inheritance rights through the prohibitive provisions of the constitution; Secondly, it does not take the confiscation of all property as a means to punish criminals, prevents the state from abusing the right of punishment, avoids the application of retaliatory torture, in order to achieve the purpose of respecting the individual's personality.
【作者单位】: 重庆工商大学法学院;
【分类号】:D914

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