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论转化抢劫中“暴力”的司法认定

发布时间:2019-01-08 21:02  文章来源:笔耕文化传播
【摘要】:在实务中,历来对转化型抢劫犯罪中暴力行为的认定不一。由此也引得理论界对此争议颇多。文章将以6个实务中的真实案例为引,对转化型抢劫犯罪的暴力以及盗窃、诈骗、抢夺等犯罪行为何时能转化为抢劫罪的相关问题进行探讨。文章拟从6个已经判决的转化型抢劫案例开始,从案例存在的争议焦点出发,从各案例的争议焦点之中抽象出有关转化型抢劫罪的暴力的四个共性问题,再分别针对这四个共性问题进行逐一阐述。在对这四个方面的问题进行论述后,将引出此文的最终立场。文章共分七个部分:第一部分,介绍搜集整理的6个案例及其在实务中所存在的争议观点和法院判决,并由此抽象出如何认定转化型抢劫中的暴力的四个争议问题:暴力行为的表现形式是否属于刑法第269条中的暴力存在分歧;行为的攻击强度是否需要达到刑法中抢劫罪所要求的暴力程度,行为人的暴力行为是否应当产生相应后果才能转化为抢劫;暴力行为应当具有怎样的目的或动机;暴力行为应当在什么时点发生才能转化为抢劫罪才能转化为抢劫罪等。第二部分,作者将从暴力的词源学解释、日常语义入手,通过探析暴力的通常语义,进而介绍英、美、德、日等国刑法对暴力的规范表达,并比较我国刑法中有关暴力的规定,从中发现英美法系、大陆法系刑法乃至我国刑法对暴力规定不同特点。最后通过介绍暴力的多种理论学说来完成本部分对暴力的语义探析。第三部分,明确了转化型抢劫中的暴力应当具备对象性、攻击性、压制性等特点。并结合具体案例明确转化型抢劫的表现形式不能被概念化,仅能从行为实质来判断某行为是否属于转化型抢劫中的暴力。第四部分,通过介绍各家学说,结合具体案例介绍了转化型抢劫的暴力程度及其结果的认定。第五部分,根据案例发现,现实当中,实施盗窃、诈骗、抢夺等犯罪行为的人针对被害人或者抓捕者实施暴力时可能持有窝藏赃物、抗拒抓捕、毁灭罪证以外的目的或动机。作者在此部分,结合各家学说论述了,在转化型抢劫罪中,行为人唯有具备窝藏赃物、抗拒抓捕或者毁灭罪证等目的之一的暴力行为才属于转化型抢劫中的暴力。第六部分,通过对转化型抢劫的暴力行为发生的犯罪阶段、暴力行为是否“当场”实施两个方面入手,论述了转化抢劫中暴力的时空条件及其认定。(二)第七部分,作为全文的总结和升华,作者从刑法的谦抑性和罪行相适应原则的角度论述了文章对转化型抢劫转化的基本立场:(一)只有具有获取数额较大财物的可能,并是以此为目的的前行为才能成为转化型抢劫的前提条件;(二)程度轻微的暴力行为不能成立转化型抢劫罪;(三)前行为所针对的财物价值微薄,但暴力程度严重的不能转化为抢劫罪,暴力行为造成他人轻伤、重伤等严重损害的,可以故意伤害等犯罪处理
[Abstract]:In practice, the identification of violence in transformed robbery has always been different. This also leads to a lot of controversy in the theoretical circle. Based on six real cases in practice, this paper probes into the related problems of violence, theft, fraud, robbery and so on, when the crime of robbery can be transformed into the crime of robbery. This paper begins with 6 cases of transformed robbery that have already been adjudicated, starting from the dispute focus of the cases, abstracting four common problems about the violence of transformed robbery from the dispute focus of each case. Then the four common problems are explained one by one. After discussing the four aspects, it will lead to the final position of this article. The article is divided into seven parts: in the first part, the author introduces the six cases collected and collated, as well as their controversial viewpoints and court judgments in practice. And from this abstract how to determine the transformed robbery of violence in the four controversial issues: whether the manifestation of violence belongs to the criminal law in the 269 article of violence there are differences; Whether the intensity of the act of attack needs to reach the level of violence required by robbery in criminal law, whether the perpetrator's violent act should have corresponding consequences before it can be transformed into robbery, what kind of purpose or motive the violent act should have; At what point should violence be turned into robbery. In the second part, the author begins with the etymological explanation and the daily semantics of violence, and then introduces the normative expression of violence in the criminal laws of Britain, America, Germany and Japan, and compares the provisions on violence in our country's criminal law. It is found that there are different characteristics of violence in Anglo-American law system, civil law and even our country's criminal law. Finally, the semantic analysis of violence is completed by introducing various theories of violence. In the third part, the author clarifies that the violence in the transformed robbery should have the characteristics of object, aggression, repression and so on. Combined with specific cases, it is clear that the manifestation of transformational robbery can not be conceptualized, but can only judge whether a certain behavior belongs to violence in transformational robbery from the nature of behavior. The fourth part, through the introduction of various theories, combined with specific cases to introduce the degree of violence and the results of transformational robbery. The fifth part, according to the case finding, in reality, the perpetrators of theft, fraud, snatch and other criminal acts against the victim or arrester may hold stolen goods, resist arrest, destroy the purpose or motive other than evidence. In this part, combined with various theories, the author discusses that in the crime of transformed robbery, the perpetrator only has the purpose of harbouring stolen goods, resisting arrest or destruction of evidence, and so on, can it be classified as violence in transformed robbery. In the sixth part, the author discusses the space-time condition of violence in transformed robbery and its identification through two aspects: the crime stage of transforming robbery and whether the violence is carried out on the spot. (2) in the seventh part, as a summary and sublimation of the full text, the author discusses the basic position of the article on the transformation of transformed robbery from the point of view of the modesty of the criminal law and the principle of adaptation of the crime: (1) there is only the possibility of obtaining a large amount of property. The former behavior can become the precondition of transforming robbery. (2) the crime of transformed robbery cannot be established if the degree of violence is slight; (3) if the value of the property targeted by the preceding act is meagre, but the degree of violence cannot be transformed into the crime of robbery, if the act of violence causes minor injury to another person, serious injury or other serious damage, he may deal with the crime of intentional injury or other crimes.
【学位授予单位】:西南政法大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2014
【分类号】:D924.3

【参考文献】

相关期刊论文 前1条

1 张明楷;;事后抢劫罪的成立条件[J];法学家;2013年05期



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