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易燃易爆环境下本质安全型超声波测距系统研究

发布时间:2019-01-11 11:37  文章来源:笔耕文化传播
【摘要】:超声波是一种空间指向性强、能量消耗慢的弹性波,其在介质中传播距离较远,因而超声波测距技术应用较为广泛,如倒车雷达、机器人避障、物位检测、水位测量等。但在多煤尘及多燃爆气体的煤矿环境中,现有的超声波测距系统由于驱动回路中含有中周变压器附带的大容量储能元件不符合本质安全要求而受到限制。为此针对易燃易爆环境下超声测距系统的本安化研究已逐步展开,常采用无中周变压器的设计思路来设计本质安全超声测距系统。传统的中周驱动方法的核心有两点。第一点是升压。升压是为了保证换能器的驱动电压较高,使得系统更为稳定地测出较远距离。第二点是阻抗匹配。中周驱动可以实现变压器次级线圈与换能器的阻抗匹配,从而使得换能系统的能量转换效率提高。易燃易爆环境下本质安全型超声波测距系统研究主要分为超声测距驱动的研究和超声驱动换能器阻抗匹配的研究,因此首先对本质安全电路的设计理论进行了阐述,介绍了本质安全电路的设计要求、易燃易爆环境下的放电火花能量、本质安全电路的保护方法。然后对超声测距理论进行研究,阐述了超声波测距的原理、方法以及超声测距系统的结构。因为超声换能器驱动后存在余震,导致测距盲区的产生,而换能器的余震与自身属性有关,因此对超声换能器的分类进行了介绍,分析了影响测距盲区的因素,并提出了消除换能器余震的几种方法。针对超声测距驱动电路的本质安全化研究,设计出不同的驱动方法并进行分析,最后采用高速光耦驱动系统。针对本安驱动下换能效率的提高,对超声换能器的阻抗匹配进行了研究,阐述了超声测距系统阻抗匹配理论、分析了换能器的工作原理和阻抗特性,最后对超声测距系统阻抗匹配网络进行分析,完成换能器的阻抗匹配设计。超声测距系统供电电路为多级电压式供电,所以对系统的供电电路进行了设计。超声换能器驱动后需要进行回波处理,所以对于系统采用的倒车雷达芯片内部的回波处理电路进行了说明,并对回波各个测试点进行了测试。超声测距系统以MSP430微处理器为控制器。利用微处理器进行蜂鸣预警和12864液晶屏的液晶显示。最后对不同的测距系统进行了驱动波形测试,对比分析了不同测距系统的驱动能力,并对换能器所需的最低驱动电压进行了实验分析,以及对于测距系统的性能进行了测试,如对障碍物凹凸面的测量进行了实验分析。易燃易爆环境下本质安全测距预警系统的研制拓宽了测距系统的应用环境,因此具有较强的实用价值。
[Abstract]:Ultrasonic wave is a kind of elastic wave with strong spatial directivity and slow energy consumption, which propagates far in the medium. Therefore, ultrasonic ranging technology is widely used, such as reversing radar, robot avoiding obstacles, level detection, water level measurement and so on. However, in the coal mine environment with multiple coal dust and multi-explosion gas, the existing ultrasonic ranging system is limited by the fact that the large capacity energy storage components attached to the mid-cycle transformer in the drive circuit are not in line with the essential safety requirements. Therefore, the study on the safety of ultrasonic ranging system in flammable and explosive environment has been carried out step by step, and the design idea of non-central cycle transformer is often used to design the intrinsically safe ultrasonic ranging system. There are two points at the core of the traditional mid-cycle drive method. The first point is a boost. The boost voltage is to ensure the high driving voltage of the transducer, and make the system more stable to measure the distance. The second point is impedance matching. The middle cycle drive can realize the impedance matching between the transformer secondary coil and the transducer, thus the energy conversion efficiency of the energy transfer system can be improved. The research of intrinsically safe ultrasonic ranging system in flammable and explosive environment is mainly divided into ultrasonic ranging drive and ultrasonic drive transducer impedance matching. The design requirements of intrinsically safe circuit, the discharge energy under flammable and explosive environment, and the protection method of intrinsically safe circuit are introduced. Then the theory of ultrasonic ranging is studied, the principle and method of ultrasonic ranging and the structure of ultrasonic ranging system are expounded. Because there are aftershocks after the ultrasonic transducer drive, which leads to the occurrence of the blind area of ranging, and the aftershock of the transducer is related to its own properties, the classification of the ultrasonic transducer is introduced, and the factors affecting the blind area of the location are analyzed. Several methods for eliminating aftershocks of transducers are put forward. Aiming at the study of the essential safety of the ultrasonic ranging driving circuit, different driving methods are designed and analyzed. Finally, the high-speed optical coupling drive system is adopted. In view of the improvement of energy transfer efficiency driven by intra safety, the impedance matching of ultrasonic transducer is studied, the impedance matching theory of ultrasonic ranging system is expounded, and the working principle and impedance characteristics of transducer are analyzed. Finally, the impedance matching network of ultrasonic ranging system is analyzed, and the impedance matching design of transducer is completed. The power supply circuit of ultrasonic ranging system is multistage voltage power supply, so the power supply circuit of the system is designed. The echo processing is needed after the ultrasonic transducer is driven, so the echo processing circuit used in the reversing radar chip is explained, and the echo test points are tested. The MSP430 microprocessor is used as the controller in the ultrasonic ranging system. The microprocessor is used for buzzer warning and LCD display on 12864 LCD screen. Finally, the driving waveforms of different ranging systems are tested, the driving capability of different ranging systems is compared and analyzed, and the minimum driving voltage required by the transducer is analyzed experimentally, as well as the performance of the ranging system is tested. For example, the measurement of concave and convex surfaces of obstacles is analyzed experimentally. The development of intrinsically safe ranging and warning system in flammable and explosive environment broadens the application environment of ranging system, so it has strong practical value.
【学位授予单位】:太原理工大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2017
【分类号】:TB559

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