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基于学缘的中国科学院院士成长特征研究

发布时间:2019-01-03 12:12
【摘要】:21世纪最关键的是人才,我国坚持尊重知识、尊重人才,坚决贯彻人才强国战略。因此,高科技人才培养是我国教育发展的关键。本论文以2007-2011年增选的中国科学院院士为研究对象,运用文献研究、比较研究和统计分析的方法对其学历背景、留学背景、从业机构进行了研究,根据院士的学缘特点分析了我国教育政策和高校发展,并提出尝试性建议,主要内容如下: 第一,通过比较研究和统计分析院士的学历背景,可以发现我国高科技人才成长的几个特点:学历越高,科学成就越大;重点院校培养的高科技人才更多;科学研究所是培养科学专业人才的重要机构;人才培养地域分布不平衡。 第二,分析中国科学院院士们的留学国别、留学院系、留学趋势,并探讨留学方式、留学目的、留学地点和留学结果演变,得出几个特点:留学院士多数集中于1980s、1990s出国深造,美国是他们的主要的留学目的国;留学目的从之前“忧国忧民”的思想逐渐转变为自我价值的提升;留学方式多样化;留学地点不断变化,美国是我国现阶段留学生最多的国家;我国各种政策鼓励留学生归国。 第三,对院士的从业机构的类型和地域分布进行分析,探讨我国高科技人才汇集有几个特点:从院士的从业机构类型来看,高等院校和研究机构是高科技人才重要的汇集地;从院士从业机构的地域分布来看,北京以绝对优势位居榜首。 第四,基于院士学缘特点,从教育政策、高校发展方面探讨,对我国高科技人才培养提出几点建议。从教育政策的教育公平方面来说,建议合理配置教育资源、鼓励更多的青年人才前往中西部边远地区、建立多种人才选择机制、建立完善的基层文化教育体系;从高校发展方面来看,存在高校发展不平衡、文理科泾渭分明、学术不端和人才流失问题,建议加大中西部高校、普通高校的扶持力度;从加强学科交流合作方面来讲,应该提高综合素质教育水平,建立诚信档案、强化监管制度,建立多样留学机制、加强高校国际化,加强人才引进机制,提高师资力量。
[Abstract]:The most important thing in the 21st century is talent. Our country insists on respecting knowledge, respecting talents and carrying out the strategy of strengthening the country by talents. Therefore, the cultivation of high-tech talents is the key to the development of education in China. In this paper, the academicians of the Chinese Academy of Sciences from 2007 to 2011 were selected as the research objects, and their academic background, study background and working institutions were studied by using the methods of literature research, comparative study and statistical analysis. According to the academic characteristics of academicians, this paper analyzes the educational policies and the development of colleges and universities in China, and puts forward some tentative suggestions. The main contents are as follows: first, through comparative research and statistical analysis, the academic background of academicians is analyzed. We can find several characteristics of the growth of high-tech talents in China: the higher the educational background, the greater the scientific achievements; The scientific research institute is an important institution for the training of scientific professionals, and the regional distribution of talent training is not balanced. Second, analyzing the study abroad country, department and trend of the academicians of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and discussing the way, the purpose, the place and the result of studying abroad, the following characteristics are obtained: the majority of the academicians studying abroad are concentrated in 1980 s. In 1990's, the United States was their main destination for studying abroad. The purpose of studying abroad has gradually changed from the thought of "worrying about the country and the people" to the promotion of self-worth, the diversification of study abroad, the constant change of study place, and the fact that the United States has the most overseas students in our country at the present stage; all kinds of policies of our country encourage foreign students to return home. Thirdly, it analyzes the types and geographical distribution of academicians' professional organizations, and probes into several characteristics of hi-tech talents' gathering in China: from the view of the types of academicians' professional organizations, universities and research institutions are the important gathering places for high-tech talents; Judging from the geographical distribution of academicians, Beijing topped the list by absolute superiority. Fourthly, based on the characteristics of academicians' academic fate, this paper probes into the educational policy and the development of colleges and universities, and puts forward some suggestions for the cultivation of high-tech talents in China. From the aspect of education fairness of educational policy, it is suggested to allocate educational resources rationally, encourage more young talents to go to the remote areas of central and western regions, set up a variety of talent selection mechanism, and establish a perfect grass-roots cultural education system. From the point of view of the development of colleges and universities, there is imbalance in the development of colleges and universities, a clear distinction between arts and science, academic misconduct and brain drain, it is suggested to increase the support of universities and colleges in the central and western part of the country. From the aspect of strengthening the subject exchange and cooperation, we should improve the level of comprehensive quality education, establish the credit file, strengthen the supervision system, establish various studying abroad mechanism, strengthen the internationalization of colleges and universities, strengthen the talent introduction mechanism, and improve the teachers' strength.
【学位授予单位】:西南交通大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2013
【分类号】:G322.21

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