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小学语文专家型教师课堂提问行为研究

发布时间:2019-01-10 19:34  文章来源:笔耕文化传播
【摘要】:专家型小学语文教师的教学行为表现是培训小学语文教师的教学行为的最重要的参照,也是小学语文教师教学能力培训目标内容的基本构成。课堂提问行为是教师教学过程中表现出的最重要行为,也是教学过程中发生频率最多的行为,是小学语文教师课堂教学的重要活动之一,也是师生互动最直接的方式,它对于启发学生思考,发展学生的语文思维,培养学生独立思考、自主探究、合作交流等各方面的能力都有着重要的作用。因此,本研究试图从课堂提问的环节入手,通过小学语文新手型与专家型教师之间存在的差异,找到小学语文专家型教师课堂提问的特点,了解小学语文教师课堂提问行为的恰当表现,从而为小学语文教师课堂教学能力培训提供依据。本研究的成果对优化课堂提问的技巧,促进小学语文教师课堂提问能力的发展有建设性意义。 研究基于对小学语文新手型教师和专家型教师课堂提问行为的观察,对课堂提问行为记录、整理、分类、比较和统计分析。研究发现小学语文新手型教师和专家型教师在课堂提问的数量、问题的类型、候答时间、叫答方式、评价方式以及再组织方式等六个方面都存在一定的差异。相对于小学语文新手型教师而言,小学语文专家型教师课堂提问的问题量少类型丰富,善于提出高层次问题,特别是评价型的问题,给予学生充分的侯答时间,,提问和叫答总是面向全体学生,对学生的回答进行有针对性的评价,善于有效追问。 研究归纳出小学语文专家型教师课堂提问的特点:(一)量少类型丰富,重视学生深层认知;(二)候答时间适当,保证学生思考充分;(三)叫答面向全体,鼓励学生全面参与;(四)评价针对性强,给予学生积极反馈;(五)追问层层递进,促进学生意义建构。在此基础上归结得到小学语文教师课堂提问的原则:(一)科学设计课堂提问数量与类型;(二)明确课堂提问的发展性目的;(三)以课堂提问的启发性为核心价值;(四)兼顾提问对象的广泛性和差异性。并提出发展小学语文教师课堂提问能力的有效策略:(一)提高教学理论水平,指导课堂提问实践;(二)重视课堂提问设计,关注提问的生成性;(三)抓住提问培训关键,提高提问培训效率;(四)系统反思课堂提问,促进提问能力发展。
[Abstract]:The teaching behavior performance of expert primary school Chinese teachers is the most important reference for the training of primary school Chinese teachers' teaching behavior, and it is also the basic composition of the target content of the primary school Chinese teachers' teaching ability training. Classroom questioning behavior is the most important behavior of teachers in the process of teaching, it is also the most frequent behavior in the process of teaching, it is one of the important activities of primary school Chinese teachers in classroom teaching, and it is also the most direct way of interaction between teachers and students. It plays an important role in enlightening students to think, developing students' Chinese thinking, cultivating students' ability of independent thinking, independent inquiry, cooperative communication and so on. Therefore, this study attempts to find out the characteristics of classroom questioning of primary school Chinese expert teachers through the differences between the novice and expert teachers. To understand the proper performance of classroom questioning behavior of primary school Chinese teachers, so as to provide the basis for the classroom teaching ability training of primary school Chinese teachers. The results of this study are of constructive significance to the optimization of classroom questioning skills and the development of classroom questioning ability of primary school Chinese teachers. Based on the observation of classroom questioning behavior of Chinese novice teachers and expert teachers in primary school, the paper records, arranges, classifies, compares and statistically analyzes classroom questioning behavior. It is found that there are some differences in the number of questions, the types of questions, the waiting time, the way of answering, the way of evaluation and the way of reorganizing. Compared with the novice primary school Chinese teachers, there are fewer types of questions asked by the primary language expert teachers in the classroom. They are good at raising high-level questions, especially the evaluative ones, and give students sufficient time to answer the questions. Questions and answers are always addressed to all students, the student's answers targeted evaluation, good at effective questioning. The research summarizes the characteristics of the classroom questioning of the primary school Chinese expert teachers: (1) the quantity is abundant and the students pay more attention to the deep cognition; (2) the waiting time is appropriate to ensure the students to think fully; (3) to face the whole and encourage the students to participate fully; (4) to give the students positive feedback by giving them positive feedback; (4) to promote the construction of the students' meaning. On this basis, the principles of classroom questioning for primary school Chinese teachers are summarized as follows: (1) scientifically designing the quantity and type of classroom questioning; (2) clarifying the developmental purpose of classroom questioning; (3) taking the enlightenment of classroom questioning as the core value; (4) giving consideration to the universality and difference of the subjects of questioning. And put forward the effective strategies to develop the classroom questioning ability of primary school Chinese teachers: (1) improve the teaching theory level, guide the classroom questioning practice, (2) attach importance to the classroom questioning design, pay attention to the generative nature of the questions; (3) to grasp the key points of questioning training and improve the efficiency of questioning training; (4) to systematically reflect on classroom questioning and promote the development of questioning ability.
【学位授予单位】:淮北师范大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2015
【分类号】:G623.2

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