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20世纪中国小学数学教科书“数与计算”内容演变研究

发布时间:2019-02-11 21:12  文章来源:笔耕文化传播
【摘要】:数与计算是数学知识体系的基础,是培养学生创新意识、发现问题、体验科学的最好数学知识,其也是整个小学阶段数学学习的主体内容。可以说,数与计算既是传统的数学知识也是创新的数学知识。数与计算的发展史是一部数学知识的实践史,它推动着数学和其他学科的发展,承载着中国灿烂的文化。然而,研究者们往往将目光聚焦于统计、概率、空间变换等较新的数学知识,而忽视了最基础的数学内容。因此,把握数与计算内容的历史演变规律,可以提高其对自身和其他文化知识的指导性、预见性。本研究以纵向的时间发展为线索,将20世纪的中国划分为三个阶段,对其所在时期有代表性的小学数学教科书中数与计算内容,从内容选择、编排体系、呈现方式三个方面探索其演变特征。研究分为六章:第一章阐述本研究的选题缘由,研究问题、思路和方法及基本框架,陈述研究目的、意义,界定相关概念。第二章综述国内外小学数学教科书中数与计算内容的研究现状。通过资料的收集与整理,在总结前人成果的基础上,从问题入手,寻找研究的思路和突破口。第三、四、五章在分析清末、民国、新中国三段历史时期小学阶段数与计算内容变革脉络和依据的基础上选取了六套教科书,分别对其内容演变进行分析总结。第六章总结20世纪我国小学数学教科书数与计算内容演变的特点,并给出启示。中国小学数学教科书数与计算内容,从清末翻译西方得到的第一本真正意义上小学数学教科书开始,到民国的成功蜕变,再到新中国的精简直至稳定发展,走过了一段曲折探索的道路。内容上由多到少、由繁到简、由细到精。编排上从知识间的关注向分支甚至学科间转化。呈现上由注重教师的教,到注重学生的学,再到二者兼顾。总结得出,20世纪我国小学数学教科书数与计算内容以社会发展为目的,在稳定中谋发展;编排突出基本概念和基本规律;呈现方式体现教学法和思想品德教育。因此,小学数学教科书中此部分内容的编写上要精选内容,突出基础性;优化编排体系,注重逻辑性;美化内容呈现,展现多元性。
[Abstract]:Number and calculation are the basis of mathematical knowledge system, and the best mathematical knowledge of cultivating students' creative consciousness, finding problems and experiencing science. It is also the main content of mathematics learning in the whole elementary school stage. It can be said that numbers and calculations are both traditional and innovative mathematical knowledge. The history of number and calculation is a practical history of mathematical knowledge, which promotes the development of mathematics and other disciplines and carries the splendid culture of China. However, researchers tend to focus on statistics, probability, spatial transformation and other relatively new mathematical knowledge, while ignoring the most basic mathematical content. Therefore, grasping the law of historical evolution of number and calculation content can improve its guidance and predictability to itself and other cultural knowledge. This research takes the longitudinal time development as the clue, divides China in the 20th century into three stages, and selects and arranges the contents of the number and calculation in the representative primary school mathematics textbooks in the period of the 20th century. This paper explores the characteristics of its evolution in three aspects. The research is divided into six chapters: the first chapter describes the reason of this study, research problems, ideas and methods and the basic framework, the purpose of the study, significance, define the relevant concepts. The second chapter summarizes the research status of the number and calculation content in primary school mathematics textbooks at home and abroad. On the basis of summing up the achievements of the predecessors, this paper, through collecting and arranging the data, looks for the train of thought and breakthrough of the research from the point of view of the problems. In the third, fourth and fifth chapters, six sets of textbooks are selected on the basis of analyzing the change and basis of the number of primary school stages and the content of calculation in the three periods of history of the late Qing Dynasty, the Republic of China and the people's Republic of China, and the evolution of their contents is analyzed and summarized respectively. The sixth chapter summarizes the characteristics of the evolution of the number and calculation content of Chinese primary school mathematics textbooks in the 20 ~ (th) century, and gives some enlightenment. The number and content of primary school mathematics textbooks in China began at the end of the Qing Dynasty when the first true primary school mathematics textbooks were translated from the end of the Qing Dynasty to the successful transformation of the Republic of China, to the streamlining of the new China and to the steady development. After a period of twists and turns to explore the road. Content from more to less, from complex to simple, from fine to fine. From the attention of knowledge to branch and even between disciplines in the arrangement. Present from the teacher's teaching, to pay attention to the students' learning, and then to both. It is concluded that the number and content of mathematics textbooks in primary schools in the 20th century are aimed at social development and seek for development in the process of stability; the arrangement highlights basic concepts and basic laws; and the way of presentation embodies teaching methods and ideological and moral education. Therefore, the compilation of this part of primary school mathematics textbooks should select the content, highlight the basic; optimize the arrangement system, pay attention to logic; beautify the content presentation, show diversity.
【学位授予单位】:赣南师范学院
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2015
【分类号】:G623.5

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