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激励教育的理论诠释与实践模式研究

发布时间:2018-01-20 00:44  文章来源:笔耕文化传播

  本文关键词: 激励 激励教育 主体性 内在动机 实践模式 出处:《东北师范大学》2011年博士论文 论文类型:学位论文


【摘要】:与动物单一的“种生命”不同,人类总是拥有着丰富多彩的“可能生命”。每一个学生身上都隐藏着巨大的发展潜质,他们的未来更是充满了难以限定的可能性,而教育便是要将这些可能性逐一转化为现实,使学生在获得知识技能的同时,成长为具有自我能动精神的主体性存在物。 在知识经济社会中,个人的创新思维、创新能力已经成为新的人才考核标准,各国相继出台了法律法规鼓励学生创造精神的培养。然而,反观我国教育却仍然停留于“以教师为本”、“以教材为本”的传统模式之中,吝于对学生创新精神的鼓励、吝于对学生主体意识的激发,这就极大地压制了学生的主动性和创造性,使学生变成了教育过程之中的“旁观者”与“客体”,不利于培养出时代所需要的创新型人才。 为了改变这种状况,实现对学生主体精神、主体能力的培养,自90年代以来,激励作为一种个人建构主体意识的有效手段,开始逐渐由一种教育方法和教育手段发展成为一种全新的教育思想,并形成了相应的激励教育理论和激励教育实践。 激励教育是一种以激励为主要方式,以培育学生主体精神和主体能力为核心目标的教育实践模式,它要求将对学生的教育与自我教育结合起来,以充分发挥受教育者的主观能动性。激励教育的基点是现实世界中的实践着的人,其价值旨归在于学生主体意识和主体能力的培养,它要求改变以往过度强调接受学习、死记硬背、机械训练的传统教育模式,从而使学生走出个人身心发展的压抑状态,实现个人主体精神的弘扬。 人类本质中最殷切的需求是渴望被肯定,个人主体意识的形成和发展在一定程度上甚至可以被视为外在激励与内在激励互为统一、互为融合的过程。而激励若要取得良好的教育效果,就不仅需要教师在日常的教育教学活动中对学生施以物质或精神上的奖励,尽可能地唤醒受教育者的能动精神,同时还需要促使学生认同教育者的外在教育,自觉将教育者的要求转化为自身发展的需要,将激励与自我激励有机统一起来。 教育理论的价值在于指导教育实践,推动教育实践的发展。而对激励教育进行理论探求的最终目的在于更好地服务激励教育实践。本研究通过对某校实施激励教育的个案研究,剖析了当前激励教育所面对的文化困境、心理困境以及实践困境,并从价值取向、目标设计、操作过程这三个方面分析了造成这些困境的深层次原因。笔者认为,激励教育的顺利实施,首先需要坚持包括全面发展与因材施教相统一、集体教育与个别教育相统一、精神激励与物质激励相统一、适时与适度相统一、竞争与合作相统一的激励教育原则,在此基础上,学校应在宏观层面上构建激励型的学校文化,中观层面上建立激励型的教师队伍,微观层面上体现激励教育的实施细则,从而形成推动激励教育发展的合力。
[Abstract]:Unlike the single "species of life" of animals, human beings always have a rich and colorful "possible life". Every student has a huge potential for development. Their future is full of indefinable possibilities, and education is to turn these possibilities into reality one by one, so that students can acquire knowledge and skills at the same time. To grow into a subjective being with self-motivated spirit. In the knowledge economy society, the individual innovation thought, the innovation ability has already become the new talented person appraisal standard, each country has promulgated the laws and regulations to encourage the student to create the spirit cultivation one after another. On the other hand, education in our country is still in the traditional mode of "teacher-oriented" and "textbook oriented", and it is not in the encouragement of students' innovative spirit, nor in the stimulation of students' subjective consciousness. This greatly suppresses students' initiative and creativity, makes students become "bystander" and "object" in the process of education, and is not conducive to the cultivation of creative talents needed by the times. In order to change this situation and realize the cultivation of students' subjective spirit and ability, since 90s, motivation has been an effective means for individual to construct subjective consciousness. It has gradually developed from a kind of educational method and means to a new kind of educational thought, and has formed the corresponding theory of encouraging education and the practice of encouraging education. Incentive education is a kind of educational practice mode, which takes motivation as the main way and takes cultivating students' subjective spirit and ability as the core goal. It requires combining the education of students with self-education. In order to give full play to the subjective initiative of the educatees, the basis of encouraging education is the practical people in the real world, whose value is the cultivation of students' subjective consciousness and subjective ability. It needs to change the traditional education mode which emphasizes excessively accepting study, memorizing by rote, and mechanical training, so that students can get out of the oppressive state of personal physical and mental development and realize the promotion of the spirit of individual subject. The most pressing need of human nature is the desire to be affirmed, and the formation and development of individual subjective consciousness can even be regarded as the unity of external and internal incentives to a certain extent. If we want to achieve good educational results, teachers should not only give material or spiritual rewards to students in their daily teaching activities. As much as possible to awaken the dynamic spirit of the educatee, at the same time, we also need to urge students to identify with the external education of educators, consciously transform the requirements of educators into the needs of their own development. Combine motivation with self-motivation. The value of educational theory lies in guiding educational practice. Promote the development of educational practice. And the ultimate purpose of the theoretical exploration of incentive education is to better serve the incentive education practice. This study through a school to implement the case study of incentive education. This paper analyzes the cultural dilemma, psychological dilemma and practical dilemma faced by the current incentive education, and designs from the value orientation and goal. The three aspects of the operation process have analyzed the deep-seated causes of these difficulties. The author believes that the smooth implementation of incentive education needs to insist on the integration of all-round development and teaching according to their aptitude. On the basis of the unity of collective education and individual education, spiritual incentive and material incentive, timely and moderate unity, competition and cooperation. The school should construct the motivational school culture on the macro level, the inspiring teacher team on the meso level, and the detailed rules of the incentive education on the micro level, thus forming the resultant force to promote the development of the incentive education.
【学位授予单位】:东北师范大学
【学位级别】:博士
【学位授予年份】:2011
【分类号】:G40

【引证文献】

相关期刊论文 前2条

1 李冬萍;;社会主义新农村建设的科学发展[J];教育教学论坛;2012年S1期

2 梁海龙;;高校课堂教学激励模型构建[J];吉林省教育学院学报(上旬);2012年11期



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