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3-5岁幼儿社会认知领域发展特点研究

发布时间:2019-01-11 13:13
【摘要】:社会认知领域主要包括道德领域、习俗领域、谨慎领域、个人领域。道德领域是指与公平公正性、他人利益和他人权力有关的事件领域。习俗领域是指与用来确保社会组织、团体顺利执行其职责和功能有关的规则领域。谨慎领域是指那些儿童经常遇到的用以调节与安全、伤害自己、舒适和健康相联系的行为的规范的领域。个人领域是个体认为是在无可非议的社会规范领域外的且不属于对或错而是属于喜好和选择考虑的一系列事件。儿童社会认知领域的发展,有助于促进儿童对不同领域规则的理解,做出符合情境的行为,增强其社会适应能力,并且促进儿童的个性与社会性发展。近年来,国外学者对社会认知领域进行了广泛研究,国内的研究相对较少,因此本研究旨在讨论儿童在社会认知领域的发展特点,本研究的完成理论上可以丰富幼儿教育教学理论,实践上可以为儿童社会化教育包括学校教育、家庭教育提供一些参考。丰富国内幼儿的社会认知领域的研究。充实不同文化背景下的儿童社会认知领域研究。 研究主要采用图片情境实验法和访谈法对11个情境事件,从判断标准(允许性、严重性、个人选择接受性、权威依赖性和普遍性)、决定权定位和判断理由归因方面开展研究。从大连市随机抽取120名幼儿进行实验,有效被试114名,3岁,4岁,5岁各38名,男女比例相当。最后对幼儿社会认知领域的年龄差异进行多重测量或单因素方差分析。 研究结果表明:(1)3-5岁幼儿在判断标准上对社会认知领域的认知发展年龄差异显著:随着年龄的增长,道德领域、习俗领域和谨慎领域违反的允许性降低;严重程度增加;个人选择接受性减小;更多的独立于权威做出合理判断;普遍认识逐渐提高,而个人领域相反。个人领域与道德领域、习俗领域、谨慎领域做出明显区分。(2)3-5岁幼儿对社会认知领域决定权定位年龄差异不显著:父母在各领域中都具有很高决定权。儿童在个人领域中有一定的决定权,随年龄增长发展迅速。3-4岁是幼儿对个人领域决定权判断发展的高峰期。5岁幼儿,在父母与幼儿共同协商方面对不同领域表现出明显差异。(3)3-5岁幼儿在社会认知领域判断理由归因上存在年龄差异显著:3岁幼儿能够对不同领域规则违反给出相应理由,并随着年龄的增长对不同领域做出更好区分。
[Abstract]:The field of social cognition mainly includes the field of morality, the field of custom, the field of prudence and the field of individual. The moral field refers to the field of events related to fairness and fairness, the interests of others and the rights of others. Customary field refers to the field of rules used to ensure that social organizations and groups carry out their duties and functions smoothly. The realm of caution is the one that children often encounter to regulate behavior associated with safety, self-harm, comfort, and health. The personal domain is a series of events which the individual considers to be outside the realm of social norms which is beyond reproach and belongs not to right or wrong but to preferences and choices. The development of children's social cognition helps to promote children's understanding of the rules of different fields, make situational behaviors, enhance their social adaptability, and promote children's personality and social development. In recent years, foreign scholars have carried out extensive research in the field of social cognition, but relatively little research has been done in China. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to discuss the characteristics of children's development in the field of social cognition. The completion of this study can enrich the teaching theory of early childhood education theoretically and provide some references for children's socialized education including school education and family education in practice. Enrich the study of children's social cognition in China. Enrich the study of children's social cognition in different cultural backgrounds. The study mainly uses the method of picture situation experiment and interview to study 11 situational events from the aspects of judgment criterion (permissibility, seriousness, individual choice acceptance, authority dependence and universality), decision orientation and reason attribution. A total of 120 young children were randomly selected from Dalian. 114 effective subjects, aged 3 years, 4 years old and 5 years old, 38 children aged 5 years old, with the same ratio of male and female, were enrolled in the experiment. Finally, multiple measurements or single factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) were carried out on the age difference of children in social cognition field. The results show that: (1) there are significant differences in the age of cognitive development in the social cognitive field among children aged 3-5 years: with the increase of age, the permissibility of violations in the field of morality, custom and caution decreases; Increased severity; reduced acceptance of personal choice; more rational judgment independent of authority; increased general understanding, whereas the opposite of personal domain. (2) there is no significant difference in the age of the decision of children aged 3-5 years in the social cognition field: parents have a very high decision power in every field. Children have a certain right of decision in the personal field, and develop rapidly with the increase of age. 3-4 years old is the peak period for children to judge the development of personal field decisions. (3) Children aged 3-5 years old have significant difference in reason attribution in social cognitive field: 3-year-old children can understand the rules of different fields. (3) Children aged 3 years old are able to understand the rules of different fields. (3) Children aged 3-5 years old have significant differences in the attribution of reasons for judgment in the field of social cognition. The violation gives a corresponding reason, And as you get older, you can make a better distinction between different areas.
【学位授予单位】:辽宁师范大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2013
【分类号】:G610

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