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基于三阶段DEA模型的中国水务企业效率实证研究

发布时间:2019-01-07 20:04  文章来源:笔耕文化传播
【摘要】:城市水务系统是现代城市存在最为重要的基础设施之一。城镇化的快速发展对水务企业既是机遇又是挑战,城镇化带来生活用水、污水处理的大量需求,供水管道、污水处理设备投资需大量增加,仅依赖传统的经营方式水务企业难以应对。另一方面,近些年我国城市水资源短缺问题突出,随着公众环保意识日益增强,水务企业的效率受到广泛关注。研究水务企业的效率对于提高我国水务企业的个体效率以及行业的整体效率具有重要意义。本文梳理了水务产业的概念、特点以及国内外学者对于水务企业效率及影响因素的研究,以三阶段DEA、Tobit模型为基础,以25家水务上市企业为例,研究水务产业的整体效率及影响因素。实证分析的第一部分使用三阶段DEA模型,通过SFA回归方法调整投入变量,得到剔除环境因素和随机因素的技术效率、纯技术效率、规模效率。实证分析的第二部分利用Tobit模型研究了产权结构、市场份额、股权集中程度、技术人员所占比例、资本周转率、资产收益率、人均总资产对水务企业技术效率、纯技术效率的影响。通过实证研究发现,目前水务产业整体规模效率高于纯技术效率,水务产业技术无效率主要表现在纯技术无效率。国有股份占比对水务企业的技术效率和纯技术效率有负面影响。股权集中程度、技术人员比重、资本周转率对水务企业的纯技术效率有正面影响。人均总资产对水务企业的技术效率和纯技术效率均有显著正面影响。因此,对水务产业提出以下建议:促进地区之间水务企业均衡发展;鼓励再生水行业发展;水务企业要提高效率,可以从引进外资、民营资本的角度出发;企业应当保障技术投入,发挥技术人员的创新能力,由此实现企业纯技术效率的提高;提高企业资本周转率。
[Abstract]:Urban water system is one of the most important infrastructure in modern cities. The rapid development of urbanization is not only an opportunity but also a challenge for water enterprises. Urbanization brings about a large demand for domestic water, sewage treatment, water supply pipelines and sewage treatment equipment investment. Relying only on the traditional way of management of water enterprises is difficult to cope with. On the other hand, the shortage of urban water resources is prominent in recent years. With the increasing public awareness of environmental protection, the efficiency of water enterprises is widely concerned. It is of great significance to study the efficiency of water enterprises to improve the individual efficiency of water enterprises and the overall efficiency of the industry. In this paper, the concept and characteristics of water industry and the research of domestic and foreign scholars on the efficiency and influencing factors of water enterprises are reviewed. Based on the three-stage DEA,Tobit model, 25 listed water enterprises are taken as an example. To study the overall efficiency and influencing factors of water industry. The first part of the empirical analysis uses the three-stage DEA model, adjusts the input variables through the SFA regression method, obtains the technical efficiency, the pure technical efficiency, the scale efficiency which excludes the environment factor and the random factor. The second part of the empirical analysis uses Tobit model to study the structure of property rights, market share, concentration degree of equity, the proportion of technicians, capital turnover rate, asset return rate, total assets per capita technical efficiency of water enterprises. The effect of pure technical efficiency. Through empirical research, it is found that the overall scale efficiency of water industry is higher than that of pure technology at present, and the technical inefficiency of water industry is mainly manifested in pure technology inefficiency. The proportion of state-owned shares has a negative effect on the technical efficiency and pure technical efficiency of water enterprises. The degree of equity concentration, the proportion of technical personnel and the rate of capital turnover have a positive effect on the pure technical efficiency of water enterprises. Total assets per capita have a significant positive impact on the technical efficiency and pure technical efficiency of water enterprises. Therefore, the following suggestions are put forward to the water industry: to promote the balanced development of water enterprises between regions, to encourage the development of the renewable water industry, to improve the efficiency of water enterprises, to start from the angle of introducing foreign capital and private capital; The enterprise should guarantee the technical input and bring into play the innovation ability of the technical personnel so as to improve the pure technical efficiency of the enterprise and raise the turnover rate of the enterprise capital.
【学位授予单位】:北京交通大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2017
【分类号】:F299.24

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