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自动计量式大豆单株脱粒机的研究与设计

发布时间:2019-01-12 20:49
【摘要】:在进行大豆科研和良种繁育过程中,通常要对单株大豆进行脱粒、计数和称重工作,因目前没有相关专用的设备,科研人员通常要对大豆进行人工脱粒和检测每株粒数和重量。人工脱粒、计量存在诸多问题,如脱粒时籽粒飞溅损失严重,数据可靠性低。计数时需长时间的观察、数数,容易引起视觉及大脑的疲劳,影响计数的准确率。此外人工作业过程中,豆粒需要不断的被转移,难免有误差的出现,且效率较低,影响了整个科研的进程。本研究的目的是设计并制造一种体积较小、结构简单、使用方便、精度较高、通用性强、成本较低的大豆单株脱粒并同时对脱下的豆粒进行计数和称重的装置。 本文从机器所要完成的任务出发,对相关的设备、技术和理论进行了研究和分析,对脱粒物料(大豆植株和豆荚)和计量对象(豆粒)的结构尺寸和机械作用特性进行了测量与分析,得到一些与设计紧密相关的数据。 本文主要是应用组合式设计方法对自动计量式大豆单株脱粒机的主要工作部件进行研究设计,其内容包括脱粒装置的设计,清选装置的设计和计量装置的设计三部分。通过对已有大豆单株脱粒机和相关计量仪器进行的性能试验,对各部分进行了结构和参数设计、优化以及性能分析。该机可一次性完成单株大豆的脱粒、清选、计数和称重等复式作业,大大减少了作业步骤,降低了外界因素对试验数据的影响,提高了数据的可靠性。特别是传感器和微电脑控制器的运用,提高了脱粒机的自动化程度,在提高试验精度的同时解放了劳动生产力、节约了生产成本、加快了科研精度。与传统脱粒机相比,该机的复合脱粒滚筒不仅减小了整机尺寸,且达到了双滚筒的脱粒效果。特别是螺旋板齿和弧形球头脱粒杆齿的有序排列,有效降低了籽粒暗伤、破皮出现的几率和滚筒的功率损耗。而配套旋风分离清选装置的应用,明显降低籽粒的含杂率。杂余出口的集杂除尘袋的配合使用,便于杂余和出口损失豆粒的收集,消除了脱粒扬尘的出现,保证了良好的科研工作环境,有利于操作人员的身体健康。 在机器的研制过程中应用AutoCAD软件绘制机器的二维图纸,用solidworks对样机进行了建模与运动学仿真分析,检查了整机的空间配置和运动干涉情况,完成了自动计量式大豆单株脱粒机的设计工作。对是制造出的脱粒装置进行了性能试验,测得的破碎率为2.58%,损失率为0.18%,结果表明此脱粒装置的性能已达到了设计要求。与同类脱粒装置试验结果相比,该装置能有效地避免喂入口处脱粒物飞溅现象的出现,籽粒出现破皮和暗伤几率也有大幅度减低。能有效满足科研单位的实际需要
[Abstract]:In the process of soybean research and breeding, it is usually necessary to thresh, count and weigh soybean per plant. Because there is no relevant special equipment at present, researchers usually need to artificially thresh soybean and detect the number and weight of each plant. There are many problems in artificial threshing, such as serious spatter loss and low reliability of data. It takes a long time to observe and count, which can easily cause visual and brain fatigue and affect the accuracy of counting. In addition, in the process of artificial operation, soybean seeds need to be continuously transferred, and errors inevitably occur, and the efficiency is low, which affects the whole process of scientific research. The purpose of this study is to design and manufacture a kind of small volume, simple structure, convenient use, high precision, high generality, low cost soybean single plant threshing, and at the same time counting and weighing soybean seeds. In this paper, the related equipment, technology and theory are studied and analyzed based on the tasks to be accomplished by the machine. The structural dimensions and mechanical properties of threshing materials (soybean plants and pods) and metering objects (soybean seeds) were measured and analyzed, and some data closely related to the design were obtained. In this paper, the main working parts of automatic metering single plant threshing machine are studied and designed by using the combined design method, which includes three parts: the design of threshing device, the design of cleaning device and the design of measuring device. Based on the performance tests of soybean thresher and related metering instruments, the structure and parameter design, optimization and performance analysis of each part were carried out. The machine can finish threshing, sorting, counting and weighing of single soybean at one time, which greatly reduces the operation steps, reduces the influence of external factors on the test data, and improves the reliability of the data. Especially the application of sensor and microcomputer controller improves the degree of automation of thresher, frees the labor productivity, saves the production cost and accelerates the precision of scientific research. Compared with the traditional threshing machine, the compound threshing drum of this machine not only reduces the size of the whole machine, but also achieves the threshing effect of the double drum. Especially, the orderly arrangement of spiral plate teeth and arc head threshing rod teeth can effectively reduce the probability of grain dark injury, the occurrence of skin break and the power loss of roller. The application of cyclone separation and cleaning device obviously reduced the heterogeneity rate of grain. The combined use of the dust-collecting bag at the outlet of miscellaneous residue is convenient for collecting the bean grains of miscellaneous residue and export loss, eliminating the appearance of threshing dust, ensuring a good scientific research work environment, and beneficial to the health of the operators. In the process of developing the machine, the two-dimensional drawing of the machine is drawn with AutoCAD software, the prototype is modeled and kinematically simulated by solidworks, and the space configuration and motion interference of the whole machine are checked. The design of automatic metering single plant threshing machine for soybean was completed. The experimental results show that the crushing rate is 2.58 and the loss rate is 0.18. The results show that the performance of the threshing device has met the design requirements. Compared with the test results of the same kind of threshing device, the device can effectively avoid the phenomenon of spatter of threshing material at the feed entrance, and the probability of grain breaking and dark injury is also greatly reduced. Can effectively meet the actual needs of scientific research units
【学位授予单位】:河南农业大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2014
【分类号】:S226.1

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