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港口国外籍船舶监督问题探析与对策建议

发布时间:2019-03-15 20:17  文章来源:笔耕文化传播
【摘要】:港口国监督是港口当局依照国际公约、本国规定或区域性协定对抵港的外籍船舶实施的检查,以确保船舶和人命安全,防止海洋污染为目的,以船员、船舶技术状况和船舶管理状况为对象。港口国监督在航运界已被广泛认可,被认为是消除低标准船舶,提高船舶安全与防止船舶污染海洋环境,促进船旗国全面、充分、有效履行国际公约的最有效措施。因此,执行港口国监督与港口安全、海洋环境以及行业安全等紧密相关。本文拟从历史和比较的角度,就我国港口国监督存在的问题进行探析并提出相应对策及建议。 港口国监督始于1982年,伴随全球第一个区域性港口国备忘录组织——巴黎备忘录组织的成立而产生。经过30余年的发展,港口国监督体系已经基本覆盖了全球,成为促进履约,提高航运安全管理,保障海上人命安全,保护海洋环境的重要监管力量。中国于1990年开始实施港口国监督,由中国海事局具体落实该项工作。近年来,海事局通过不断提高行政执法能力,在港口国监督方面取得了长足发展。但是,在一些新形势和新需求面前,我国港口国监督略显不足,存在着一些问题。诸如航运业长时间徘徊于低迷状态,经济复苏仍处于相当脆弱的状态,整个航运业的安全管理水平是否也有所下降,又如美国海岸警卫队实施“二十一世纪质量船舶”、巴黎备忘录实施新的检查机制,是否会形成“此消彼长”的影响,低标准船①是否因“挤出效应”大量流入中国港口水域,再如中国多个港口提出航运中心规划建设、邮轮母港建设,扩大港口吞吐量势必需要更多的船舶承担运输任务,目前的港口安全是否能承受更为繁忙的海上交通。因此,创新我国港口国监督的相关机制,提升我国港口国监督执法能效,将产生重要的影响。近者可更好地提升我国航运行业安全、港口与海洋环境安全,远者可提升我国在全球航运领域的影响力和话语权。 本文采用文献研究法、历史研究法和比较研究法进行研究,力图对我国港口国监督有一个全面客观的认识与了解。文中采用文献研究法对我国港口国监督进行文献综述,回顾和总结了前人著作论文中的主要研究成果和研究重点;运用历史研究法梳理了港口国监督的历史演变过程,明晰了各个阶段的主要特点;通过比较研究法分析了我国港口国监督的发展现状和存在问题,并提出相应对策和建议。
[Abstract]:Port State Supervision is an inspection carried out by the port authorities on foreign ships arriving in port in accordance with international conventions, national regulations or regional agreements for the purpose of ensuring the safety of ships and human lives and preventing marine pollution, with the aim of crew members, The technical condition of the ship and the condition of the management of the ship shall be the object. Port State Supervision has been widely recognized in shipping circles. It is considered to be the most effective measure to eliminate low-standard ships, improve ship safety and prevent pollution of marine environment by ships, and promote flag States to fully, fully and effectively implement international conventions. Therefore, the implementation of port state control is closely related to port security, marine environment and industry security. From the point of view of history and comparison, this paper probes into the problems existing in China's port state supervision and puts forward corresponding countermeasures and suggestions. Port State Supervision began in 1982 with the establishment of the Paris Memorandum Organization, the first regional port State memorandum organization in the world. After more than 30 years of development, the port state supervision system has basically covered the world, and has become an important regulatory force to promote compliance, improve shipping safety management, ensure the safety of human lives at sea and protect the marine environment. China began to carry out port state supervision in 1990, and this work was carried out by China Maritime Administration. In recent years, the Maritime Bureau has made great progress in port state supervision by continuously improving its administrative law enforcement capacity. However, in the face of some new situations and new demands, China's port state supervision is a little inadequate, and there are some problems. For example, the shipping industry has been hovering around for a long time in a state of depression, the economic recovery is still in a rather fragile state, and whether the safety management level of the entire shipping industry has also declined, such as the implementation by the United States Coast Guard of "21 century quality ships", Whether the implementation of the new inspection mechanism in the Paris Memorandum of understanding will have the effect of "ups and downs", whether the low-standard vessel 1 will flow into China's port waters in large quantities due to the "crowding-out effect", and as many ports in China have proposed the planning and construction of shipping centers, The construction of cruise home port and the expansion of port throughput are bound to require more ships to undertake transport tasks, and whether the current port security can withstand more busy maritime traffic. Therefore, the innovation of the relevant mechanism of our port state supervision and the improvement of the energy efficiency of our country's port state supervision enforcement will have an important impact. The nearer can improve the security of China's shipping industry, port and marine environment security, and the distant ones can enhance the influence and speaking power of our country in the field of global shipping. In this paper, the method of literature research, historical study and comparative research are used to study the port state supervision of our country in order to have a comprehensive and objective understanding. In this paper, we use the literature research method to review the literature of port state supervision in China, and review and summarize the main research results and research emphases in the previous works. This paper uses the historical research method to sort out the historical evolution process of port state supervision, clarifies the main characteristics of each stage, analyzes the present situation and existing problems of the development of port state supervision in our country by comparative research method, and puts forward the corresponding countermeasures and suggestions.
【学位授予单位】:厦门大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2013
【分类号】:F552.1;U691

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