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水资源约束下石河子垦区种植业结构优化研究

发布时间:2018-05-17 01:34  文章来源:笔耕文化传播

  本文选题:种植业结构 + 优化 ; 参考:《石河子大学》2017年硕士论文


【摘要】:种植业的结构优化是农业可持续发展的重要内容。处于干旱地带的石河子垦区是典型的绿洲农业,农业用水占有很大比重,尤其是种植业,随着经济社会的快速发展,工业用水和生活用水需求的不断增加,水资源供需矛盾日趋严峻。同时石河子垦区种植模式比较单一,棉花占主导地位。单一的种植模式带来了诸多问题,粮食供给不足,农田土壤盐碱化等问题日益显现。因此,如何在水资源短缺的情况下,实现种植业结构的优化配置是推进石河子垦区农业的可持续发展和人民生活水平提高的重要途径。本文在国内外相关研究的基础上,首先分析了水资源约束下种植业结构调整的内涵和特征,阐述了相关理论基础;其次,介绍了石河子垦区区域状况和用水结构及其变动情况,同时分析了垦区种植业结构现状及变动趋势,并指出当前石河子垦区水资源仍比较匮乏,农业灌溉用水占到总用水量的90%,而农业用水中种植业用水占有很高比重;石河子垦区当前种植业结构比较单一,并不是合理最优的;依据保证粮食生产安全,提高水资源利用效率,实现经济效益、生态效益和社会效益最优化的原则,根据石河子垦区种植业发展特点及用水现状,建立水资源约束条件下的种植业结构调整目标函数及约束条件,实证分析石河子垦区种植业结构调整及其优化效果,得出结论:以提高水资源利用效率,保证粮食生产安全和经济社会生产生活需求的前提下,石河子垦区种植业结构调整方向应以小麦、玉米、棉花、油料、甜菜、瓜果为主要调整对象,扩大小麦、豆类、油料和瓜果的种植面积,减少玉米和棉花等耗水资源较大的农作物的种植面积,稍微增加苜蓿为主要饲料饲料作物的播种面积,并且经济作物调整中仍保持着棉花这一比较优势作物;最后提出相关政策建议,有助于优化垦区种植业结构,满足垦区经济社会发展对粮食生产和各种作物的需求,有助于实现经济效益和生态效益的最优化,提高用水效率,保护整个区域的生态环境,有助于农户的收入的增加,促进石河子垦区现代化农业可持续健康发展。
[Abstract]:The structure optimization of planting industry is an important content of the sustainable development of agriculture. Shihezi Reclamation area in arid zone is a typical oasis agriculture. Agricultural water use accounts for a large proportion, especially for planting. With the rapid development of economy and society, the demand for industrial water and domestic water is increasing. The contradiction between supply and demand of water resources is becoming more and more At the same time, Shihezi Reclamation area planting mode is relatively single, cotton dominates. The single planting pattern has brought many problems, such as shortage of grain supply, salinization of farmland soil and so on. Therefore, how to realize the optimal allocation of planting structure is an important way to promote the sustainable development of agriculture and the improvement of people's living standard in Shihezi Reclamation area under the condition of water resources shortage. On the basis of related research at home and abroad, this paper first analyzes the connotation and characteristics of crop structure adjustment under water resources constraints, and expounds the relevant theoretical basis; secondly, it introduces the regional situation and water use structure and its changes in Shihezi Reclamation area. At the same time, the present situation and changing trend of planting structure in reclamation area are analyzed, and it is pointed out that water resources in Shihezi reclamation area are still scarce at present, irrigation water accounts for 90% of the total water consumption, and planting water is a high proportion in agricultural water use. The current planting structure in Shihezi Reclamation area is relatively simple and is not reasonable and optimal. It is based on the principles of ensuring the safety of grain production, improving the efficiency of water resources utilization, and realizing the optimization of economic, ecological and social benefits. According to the characteristics of planting development and the present situation of water use in Shihezi Reclamation area, the objective function and constraint condition of planting structure adjustment under the condition of water resources constraint are established, and the effect of crop structure adjustment and optimization in Shihezi Reclamation area is analyzed empirically. Conclusion: in order to improve the utilization efficiency of water resources and ensure the safety of grain production and economic and social production and living needs, the planting structure of Shihezi Reclamation region should be adjusted by wheat, corn, cotton, oil, sugar beet, wheat, corn, cotton, oil and sugar. Melon and fruit as the main adjustment object, expand the planting area of wheat, beans, oil and melon and fruit, reduce the planting area of water consuming crops such as corn and cotton, and slightly increase the planting area of alfalfa as the main forage crop, And the cash crop adjustment still maintains the cotton as a comparative advantage crop. Finally, some relevant policy suggestions are put forward, which will help to optimize the planting structure in the reclamation area and meet the demand for grain production and various crops in the economic and social development of the reclamation area. It is helpful to realize the optimization of economic and ecological benefits, to improve the efficiency of water use, to protect the ecological environment of the whole region, to increase the income of farmers and to promote the sustainable and healthy development of modern agriculture in Shihezi Reclamation area.
【学位授予单位】:石河子大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2017
【分类号】:F326.1

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