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新型微纳叠屋阻隔材料制备装置及成型工艺的研究

发布时间:2019-01-11 08:50  文章来源:笔耕文化传播
【摘要】:众所周知,普通橡胶具有良好的气体透过性,其气密性十分差。然而在许多领域里都十分需要具有高阻隔性能的橡胶,如轮胎行业,需要使用气体阻隔性能极佳的橡胶作为轮胎气密层和内衬层。丁基橡胶作为少数具有优异气体阻隔性能的橡胶之一而被广泛应用于汽车轮胎领域。目前我国对丁基橡胶的需求量十分巨大,而国内生产的丁基橡胶严重不足,为解决丁基橡胶供不应求的市场现状,本课题提出了一种新型微纳叠层阻隔材料作为可以替代丁基橡胶的高阻隔性橡胶,使其成为各种轮胎内衬层、气密层以及密封件的主要使用材料,从而减少丁基橡胶的进口量,摆脱国外对我国丁基橡胶市场的操控。本课题的主要工作内容和研究成果如下:1、基于纳米叠层复合技术,研制了一套用于制备新型微纳叠层阻隔材料的模内叠层共挤装置,并对装置进行搭建和调试,通过塑塑共挤和橡塑共挤两组实验验证了模内叠层共挤装置的挤出和叠层效果。运用聚合物流变学理论知识分析了实验过程中出现的粘性包覆和界面不稳定现象。通过选择相容性好的材料、控制共挤工艺参数以及合理设计流道结构等方法可以得到层厚分布均匀的制品。2、利用CFD软件Polyflow对不同材料体系的共挤流动情况进行了模拟分析,探明了入口体积流量、材料粘度、共挤温度等参数对共挤流动,尤其是对共挤界面位置分布的影响。模拟结果表明,共挤界面的位置主要入口体积流量和材料粘度两个参数共同决定:在材料粘度相同的情况下,共挤界面会向入口体积流量较小的一侧偏移,且入口体积流量相差越大,界面偏移量越大;在入口体积流量相同的情况下,共挤界面会向熔体粘度相对较低的一侧偏移,且熔体粘度差异越大,界面偏移越明显。通过相关实验得到的结果与模拟结果基本相同,证明了模拟结果的可靠性,为后续制备新型微纳叠层阻隔材料提供了有意义的参考。3、基于模拟分析结果,利用模内叠层共挤装置制备了新型微纳叠层阻隔材料,对阻隔材料进行了微观表征测试、力学拉伸强度性能测试和气体阻隔性能测试。测试结果表明用模内叠层共挤装置制备的三种阻隔材料其气体阻隔性能较纯EPDM均有不同程度的提升。对于(PA6+EPDM-g-MAH+EPDM)/EPDM阻隔材料,随着PA6所占质量百分比的增大,其氧气透过量降低,而力学拉伸强度则呈先增大后减小的抛物线变化规律,并在PA6质量百分比为5.4%时达到峰值。对于PA6/EPDM-g-MAH/EPDM阻隔材料,随着PA6所占质量百分比的增大,其氧气透过量呈线性降低,其力学拉伸强度呈线性增大。用模内叠层共挤装置制备的阻隔材料其渗透系数最低能达到3.603×10-13cm3·cm/ (cm2s·Pa),是纯EPDM的33.93%,是轮胎内衬层专用混炼胶的14.25%,与丁基橡胶的1.070×10-13cm3·cm/(cm2·s·Pa)十分接近。本课题成功研制出了新型微纳叠层阻隔材料的制备装置,并通过模拟指导实验制备出了具有高气体阻隔性能的橡胶制品,同时采用模拟分析加实验验证的方法对新型微纳叠层阻隔材料的成型工艺进行了优化。
[Abstract]:It is well known that the common rubber has good gas permeability and the air-tightness is very poor. In many areas, however, rubber with high barrier properties, such as the tire industry, is required to use rubber with excellent gas barrier properties as the tire air-tight layer and the liner layer. butyl rubber is widely used in the field of automobile tires as one of a few rubbers with excellent gas barrier properties. At present, the demand of butyl rubber in China is very large, and the domestic production of butyl rubber is seriously insufficient. In order to solve the market situation of the supply of butyl rubber, a new type of micro-nano-layer barrier material is proposed as the high-barrier rubber which can replace butyl rubber. making it a main use material of various tyre lining layers, air-tight layers and seals, thereby reducing the import of butyl rubber and getting rid of the control of the butyl rubber market of the country. The main contents and research results of this project are as follows: 1. Based on the composite technology of the nano-stack, a set of inner-die laminated co-extrusion devices for preparing a new type of micro-nano-stack barrier material are developed, and the device is set up and debugged. The extrusion and lamination of the laminated co-extrusion device in the mold were verified by the plastic-plastic co-extrusion and the plastic-plastic co-extrusion. The viscous coating and the interfacial instability in the course of the experiment were analyzed by using the theory of polymer rheology. by selecting the material with good compatibility, controlling the co-extrusion process parameters and the reasonable design of the flow channel structure, the product with uniform layer thickness distribution can be obtained. The influence of the parameters such as the viscosity of the material and the co-extrusion temperature on the co-extrusion flow, especially the distribution of the co-extrusion interface. The simulation results show that the main inlet volume flow and the material viscosity of the co-extrusion interface are determined by the two parameters: when the viscosity of the material is the same, the co-extrusion interface is offset to one side with a smaller inlet volume flow, and the larger the inlet volume flow, the greater the interface offset; In the case where the inlet volume flow is the same, the co-extrusion interface is offset to one side with a relatively low melt viscosity, and the greater the melt viscosity difference, the more obvious the interface shift. The results obtained from the related experiments are basically the same as the simulation results, and the reliability of the simulation results is proved, and a meaningful reference is provided for the subsequent preparation of the novel micro-nano-stack barrier material. A new type of micro-nano-stack barrier material was prepared by means of a laminated co-extrusion device. The barrier material was tested by micro-characterization, mechanical tensile strength and gas barrier properties. The results of the test show that the gas barrier properties of the three barrier materials prepared by the in-mold laminated co-extrusion device are of different degrees with that of the pure EPDM. In the case of (PA6 + EPDM-g-MAH + EPDM)/ EPDM barrier material, with the increase of the mass percentage of PA6, the oxygen permeation amount decreased, while the mechanical tensile strength was first increased and then decreased, and the peak value was reached when the mass percentage of PA6 was 5. 4%. For PA6/ EPDM-g-MAH/ EPDM barrier material, with the increase of the mass percentage of PA6, the oxygen permeability of PA6/ EPDM-g-MAH/ EPDM was reduced linearly, and the mechanical tensile strength of PA6/ EPDM-g-MAH/ EPDM was increased linearly. The permeability coefficient of the barrier material prepared by the in-mold laminated co-extrusion device can reach 3. 603-10-13cm3 路 cm/ (cm2s 路 Pa), which is 33.93% of the pure EPDM, which is 14.25% of the special-purpose mixed rubber of the tire inner lining layer, and is very close to that of the butyl rubber 1. 070-10-13cm3 路 cm/ (cm2 路 s 路 Pa). The preparation device of a novel micro-nano-stack barrier material is successfully developed, and a rubber product with high gas barrier property is prepared through the simulation guide experiment, At the same time, the forming process of the new micro-nano-stack barrier material was optimized by means of simulation analysis and experimental verification.
【学位授予单位】:北京化工大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2015
【分类号】:TQ336;TB33

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