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永磁同步电动机调速系统高性能控制策略研究

发布时间:2019-01-12 19:46  文章来源:笔耕文化传播
【摘要】:永磁同步电动机(PMSM)具有结构简单、损耗小、效率高、功率密度高、运行可靠等优点,在交流调速系统中得到广泛应用;永磁同步电动机调速系统控制策略的研究更是近年来的研究热点。本文以永磁同步电动机为研究对象,为实现高性能控制,从内而外,分别对电流环、转速环常用控制策略进行深入分析和研究。首先,介绍永磁同步电动机结构、数学模型及矢量控制原理。从基本的电磁关系入手,简单分析矢量控制时的几种方法,根据不同方法的转速-转矩特性确定采用id=0的矢量控制。传统的双PI控制调速系统由于d、q轴电流耦合,存在动态特性差的问题,采用电压前馈解耦控制补偿耦合项,改善了调速系统的动态特性。接着,采用传统无差拍控制设计电流环,从原理上降低了定子电流的谐波含量。针对传统无差拍控制对系统参数依赖性较大的特点,设计改进无差拍电流控制器,降低了系统对参数变化的敏感度。由于FCS-MPC可实现单目标及多目标控制,适用于高性能传动控制,因此又采用FCS-MPC设计电流环,并对模型预测控制的寻优机理及其可产生的最大电流误差进行分析。针对FCS-MPC计算量大的问题,采用基于快速矢量选择的模型预测控制对FCS-MPC进行完善。然后,采用滑模趋近律控制设计转速环,较之PI控制提高了系统转速动态特性和抗扰性。先对简单易实现的等速趋近律进行分析,指出其趋近速度与滑模抖振水平之间的关系,并设计基于等速趋近律的滑模速度控制器。幂次趋近律与等速趋近律相比抖振小,但趋近速度慢,因而在其基础上提出了快速幂次趋近律,在有效提高趋近速度的同时进一步抑制抖振现象,解决了现有趋近律趋近时间久的问题。给出了快速幂次趋近律的转速滑模控制器设计方法与过程,构建了永磁同步电机滑模调速系统,提高了系统控制性能。最后,基于实验室现有资源,搭建永磁同步电动机调速控制系统的硬件平台,在平台上完成基于电压前馈解耦控制PMSM矢量控制实验、预测控制实验和滑模变结构控制实验,验证了本文所提控制策略的可行性和有效性。
[Abstract]:Permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) has many advantages, such as simple structure, low loss, high efficiency, high power density and reliable operation, so it is widely used in AC speed regulation system. The research on the control strategy of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) speed control system is a hot topic in recent years. In this paper, the permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is taken as the research object. In order to realize the high performance control, the common control strategies of the current loop and the rotational speed loop are analyzed and studied from the inside out. Firstly, the structure, mathematical model and vector control principle of PMSM are introduced. Based on the basic electromagnetic relation, several methods of vector control are simply analyzed. According to the rotational speed and torque characteristics of different methods, the vector control using id=0 is determined. The traditional dual PI control speed control system has the problem of poor dynamic characteristic because of the current coupling of dl Q axis. The coupling term is compensated by voltage feedforward decoupling control, which improves the dynamic characteristic of the speed control system. Then, the traditional beat-free control is used to design the current loop, which can reduce the harmonic content of stator current in principle. In view of the characteristic that the traditional beat control is dependent on the parameters of the system, an improved deadbeat current controller is designed to reduce the sensitivity of the system to the parameter change. Because FCS-MPC can realize single-objective and multi-objective control and is suitable for high performance drive control, FCS-MPC is used to design current loop. The optimization mechanism of model predictive control and its maximum current error are analyzed. The model predictive control based on fast vector selection is used to perfect FCS-MPC. Then, the sliding mode approach law is used to design the rotational speed loop, which improves the dynamic characteristic and immunity of the system speed compared with PI control. This paper first analyzes the simple and easy to realize the constant velocity approach law, points out the relationship between the approach velocity and the level of chattering of sliding mode, and designs a sliding mode velocity controller based on the constant velocity approach law. Compared with the constant velocity approach law, the power law is less buffeting, but the approach speed is slow. Therefore, a fast power law is proposed on the basis of the law, which can effectively increase the approach speed and further suppress the chattering phenomenon. The problem of the current approach law is solved for a long time. The design method and process of speed sliding mode controller with fast power approach law are presented. The sliding mode speed control system of permanent magnet synchronous motor is constructed and the control performance of the system is improved. Finally, based on the existing resources in the laboratory, the hardware platform of the PMSM speed control system is built. The experiments of PMSM vector control based on voltage feedforward decoupling control, predictive control experiment and sliding mode variable structure control experiment are completed on the platform. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed control strategy are verified.
【学位授予单位】:中国矿业大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2017
【分类号】:TM341

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