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低效感应电机永磁化再制造及控制技术研究

发布时间:2019-02-11 21:34
【摘要】:随着全球电气化水平的提高,电能已成为仅次于石油的全球第二大终端消费能源。关于电能的合理开发和利用越来越多的受到各国政府和机构的关注。在电能开发方面,基于清洁和可再生能源的核电、风电以及光伏发电等项目的规模逐年增长。在电能利用方面,各国和国际组织纷纷出台相应标准,强制提高用电设备能效。电机作为电能与电能、以及电能与机械能转换的重要装置,消耗全球近一半的用电量,超过全球第二大用电设备——照明用电量的两倍。因此,提升电机以及电机系统能效对于电能资源的合理利用、实现节能减排具有重要意义。为便于高能效电机系统的推广,需要在提升电机能效的同时,尽可能降低电机及其控制系统成本。本文在目前市场占有量最大的三相感应电机基础上,通过将其再制造为永磁同步电机(Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines,PMSMs),以较小的成本实现现有电机设备的能效提升,并通过高效控制算法充分发挥再制造电机高效率、高动态品质的优势。在降低系统成本方面,采用高性能无位置传感器矢量控制,结合平稳的变-工频切换策略,在降低系统成本的同时,进一步提高系统能效。具体研究内容如下:首先,在不改变低能效三相感应电机定子尺寸和绕组排布的前提下,仅将鼠笼转子更换为优化设计的永磁转子,实现电机能效提升。通过综合考虑再制造电机各损耗成分,得到再制造电机效率与磁负荷的关系,并由此预估再制造电机的永磁体尺寸。针对三相感应电机定子较常采用的星接和角接两种绕组形式,分别以削弱齿谐波和三次谐波为目标,给出相应的空载反电势优化设计方法,并分析角接绕组PMSM在恒功率转速范围和能效方面的优势。在此过程中,完成7种机座号共10台低能效三相感应电机的永磁化再制造。测试数据表明,再制造后电机能效等级均有较大提升。最后,给出永磁化再制造工艺流程,并核算再制造电机的成本回收周期。其次,对于PMSM的电感参数,提出仅与电机极槽配合和绕组形式有关的气隙比磁导系数的概念,实现电机极槽配合与几何参数的解耦。在此基础上分析相近几何参数下,PMSM电感参数与极槽配合的关系,并通过有限元分析(Finite Element Analysis,FEA)验证结论的正确性。对于PMSM的定子铁损,基于Bertotti铁损公式将其分解到转子直、交轴系下,得到PMSM定子铁损关于直、交轴磁链的解析表达式,从而有助于PMSM设计及在线效率优化控制。同样,采用FEA验证了解析计算结果的准确性。在此基础上,为充分发挥PMSM高效率、高动态品质的优势,本文基于损耗模型,提出最大效率电流比控制策略,并通过实验对比测试不同效率控制策略下,再制造永磁电机的负载效率曲线。再次,为降低再制造电机控制系统成本、提高系统可靠性,本文就PMSM全速域无位置传感器控制技术展开研究。对于低速区,介绍几种常见的基于定、转子轴系的高频电压注入法,分析注入法中未考虑的电阻、旋转电势压降以及逆变器非线性对位置观测误差的影响,并基于脉振方波注入法提出改进算法,提高对注入电压误差的鲁棒性。对于电机磁场畸变对注入法位置观测误差的影响,本文推导得到位置观测误差与电机相电感高次谐波相位的数学表达式,并通过仿真和实验加以验证。此外,通过仿真,研究SVPWM电压谐波对位置观测误差的影响。对于高速区,采用模型法并基于滑模观测器实现PMSM的无位置传感器控制。在转速过渡区,采用基于注入法和模型法的混合无位置传感器控制策略。实验结果验证了上述算法的有效性。最后,针对长期恒频运行的工作场合,为进一步降低系统成本,提高系统能效,本文研究PMSM的并网切换控制策略。由于再制造的PMSM转子无阻尼绕组,不具备自启动能力,因此需由变频器辅助软启动,并采用无位置传感器控制以降低系统成本。变-工频切换时,采用数字锁相环检测电网及变频器输出电压相位,并通过调节电机转速和变频器输出电压,使系统满足并网条件。工-变频切换时,通过引入辅助开环控制,实现工频到无位置传感器变频运行的平稳过渡。本文基于5台不同型号的再制造电机实现平稳并网切换运行,并对比额定转速、不同负载下变、工频运行时的系统效率。
[Abstract]:With the increase of the global electrification level, the electric energy has become the second largest terminal consumer energy after the oil. With regard to the rational exploitation and utilization of electric energy, more and more attention has been paid to Governments and institutions. In terms of energy development, the scale of projects such as nuclear power, wind power and photovoltaic power generation based on clean and renewable energy is increasing year by year. In the aspect of electric energy utilization, countries and international organizations have introduced corresponding standards to force the energy efficiency of electric equipment to be improved. The electric machine, as an important device for converting electric energy and electric energy, as well as electric energy and mechanical energy, consumes nearly half of the world's electricity consumption, which is more than twice the electricity consumption of the second-largest electric equipment in the world. Therefore, the energy efficiency of the lifting motor and the motor system is of great significance to the reasonable utilization of the electric energy resources and the energy-saving and emission reduction. In order to facilitate the popularization of the high energy efficiency motor system, it is necessary to reduce the cost of the motor and its control system as much as possible while improving the energy efficiency of the motor. In this paper, on the basis of the three-phase induction motor with the largest market share, the energy efficiency of the existing motor equipment can be improved by using the permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSMs) in a small cost, and the high efficiency of the re-manufacturing motor can be fully realized by the high-efficiency control algorithm. and has the advantages of high dynamic quality. in that aspect of reduce the system cost, the high-performance non-position sensor vector control is adopted, and a stable variable-power frequency switching strategy is combined, so that the system cost is reduced, and the energy efficiency of the system is further improved. The specific research contents are as follows: First, on the premise of not changing the stator size and the winding arrangement of the low energy efficiency three-phase induction motor, only the squirrel-cage rotor is replaced with the permanent-magnet rotor with the optimized design, and the energy efficiency of the motor is improved. The relationship between the efficiency of the remanufacturing motor and the magnetic load is obtained by comprehensively considering the loss components of the remanufacturing motor, and the permanent magnet size of the remanufacturing motor is estimated. In order to reduce the harmonic and the third harmonic of the three-phase induction motor, the optimal design method of no-load reverse potential is given, and the advantages of the angle-connected PMSM in the range of constant power and energy efficiency are analyzed. In this process, the permanent magnetization and remanufacturing of seven machine base numbers and 10 low energy efficiency three-phase induction motors are completed. The test data show that the energy efficiency grade of the motor after re-manufacturing is greatly improved. and finally, the process flow of the permanent magnetization remanufacturing is given, and the cost recovery period of the remanufacturing motor is accounted for. Secondly, for the inductive parameters of the PMSM, the concept of the air gap specific to the pole slot of the motor and the form of the winding is proposed, and the decoupling of the fit of the pole slot and the geometric parameter of the motor is realized. Based on the above, the relationship between the PMSM inductance parameter and the pole slot is analyzed, and the validity of the conclusion is verified by the finite element analysis (FEA). For the stator iron loss of the PMSM, based on the Berttoti iron loss formula, it is decomposed into the rotor straight and cross-system, and the analytical expression of the stator iron loss of the PMSM is obtained with respect to the straight and cross-axis magnetic chain, thus contributing to the design of the PMSM and the on-line efficiency optimization control. Similarly, FEA is used to verify the accuracy of the analytical results. On this basis, in order to give full play to the advantage of the high efficiency and high dynamic quality of the PMSM, this paper puts forward the maximum efficiency current ratio control strategy based on the loss model and the load efficiency curve of the permanent magnet motor under the control strategy of different efficiency. Thirdly, in order to reduce the cost of re-manufacturing the motor control system and improve the system reliability, this paper studies the control technology of the position-free sensor in the full-speed field of the PMSM. In the low-speed region, several common high-frequency voltage injection method based on stator and rotor shaft system is introduced, and the influence of the non-considered resistance, rotary electric potential pressure drop and the non-linearity of the inverter on the position observation error is analyzed, and an improved algorithm is proposed based on the pulse-vibration square wave injection method. and the robustness of the injection voltage error is improved. In this paper, the mathematical expression of the position observation error and the high sub-harmonic phase of the motor phase is derived and verified by simulation and experiment. In addition, the influence of the SVPWM voltage harmonic on the position observation error is studied by simulation. For the high-speed region, the model method is adopted and the position-free sensor control of the PMSM is realized based on the sliding mode observer. In the speed transition region, a hybrid sensorless control strategy based on the injection method and the model method is used. The experimental results verify the validity of the algorithm. Finally, aiming at the long-term constant-frequency operation, in order to further reduce the system cost and improve the energy efficiency of the system, this paper studies the network switching control strategy of the PMSM. Since the remanufactured PMSM rotor has no damping windings and does not have self-starting capability, the soft start of the frequency converter is required, and the position-free sensor control is adopted to reduce the system cost. A digital phase-locked loop is adopted to detect the phase of the output voltage of the power grid and the frequency converter when the transformer-power frequency is switched, and the system can meet the network condition by adjusting the rotation speed of the motor and the output voltage of the frequency converter. By introducing the auxiliary open-loop control, the smooth transition of the frequency conversion operation of the power frequency to the position-free sensor is realized by introducing the auxiliary open-loop control. This paper is based on five different types of remanufacturing motors to realize the smooth and network switching operation, and compare the system efficiency at the time of the rated speed, the change of the load and the operation of the power frequency.
【学位授予单位】:哈尔滨工业大学
【学位级别】:博士
【学位授予年份】:2017
【分类号】:TM346

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