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用于电动汽车充电的三相VIENNA整流技术的研究

发布时间:2019-01-12 13:50  文章来源:笔耕文化传播
【摘要】:近年来,随着动力电池技术的不断提升,电动汽车产业得到了迅速的发展,为了大力推广电动汽车,需要建设大量的充电站为电动汽车蓄电池补充电能,由于充电机需要快速从电网上获取很大的电流,而且它是一种非线性负载,会给电网带来很大的谐波污染,因此研究带有功率因数校正功能的整流器具有重要的意义。 在三相整流器拓扑结构中,三相VIENNA整流器具有网侧电能质量好、开关器件少、管应力小、直流母线无直通危险等优点,因此本文以三相VIENNA整流拓扑为研究对象,从拓扑的工作原理、数学模型、控制策略上进行了深入的研究,在此基础上进行了主拓扑关键器件的选择,设计了系统的硬件电路,并编写控制程序。 本文深入研究了三电平空间矢量控制方法,在此基础上分析了载波移相控制策略,三角载波移相调制产生的开关状态,与空间矢量调制产生的开关状态一致,其参考矢量都是由其所在小三角扇区的基本矢量来合成,各基本矢量对应的开关状态按一定的时间序列控制开关管,这样达到了空间矢量控制的效果,同时使控制方法变的更简化。针对直流母线中点电位不平衡,通过将中点电位的差值叠加到电流环的参考电压中,来动态调节直流母线正负电压的平衡。由于该系统无中线,不能直接采样相电压,本文通过采样输入端和直流母线中点之间的电压,经过改进控制算法的处理获得各相电压,从而简化了硬件电路。 完成以上理论的分析,,在Matlab中搭建了该系统的仿真模型,仿真结果验证了理论分析的正确性。最后设计了一台基于DSP控制的实验样机,实验结果表明该拓扑在载波移相控制策略的控制下具有网侧电能质量好、谐波含量小,而且能动态调节直流母线中性点平衡等优点。
[Abstract]:In recent years, with the continuous improvement of power battery technology, the electric vehicle industry has been rapid development, in order to vigorously promote electric vehicles, it is necessary to build a large number of charging stations to replenish electric energy for electric vehicle batteries. It is very important to study rectifier with power factor correction (PFC) because the charger needs to obtain a large current from the power grid quickly and it is a nonlinear load that will bring a lot of harmonic pollution to the power grid. In the topology structure of three-phase rectifier, three-phase VIENNA rectifier has the advantages of good power quality on the grid side, less switching devices, less stress of the tube, no direct current danger of DC busbar, etc. Therefore, the three-phase VIENNA rectifier topology is taken as the research object in this paper. In this paper, the working principle, mathematical model and control strategy of the topology are deeply studied. On this basis, the main topology key devices are selected, the hardware circuit of the system is designed, and the control program is written. In this paper, the three-level space vector control method is deeply studied, and then the carrier phase shift control strategy is analyzed. The switching state generated by triangular carrier phase shift modulation is consistent with the switching state generated by space vector modulation. The reference vectors are all synthesized by the basic vectors in the small triangular sector. The switching state of each basic vector is controlled according to a certain time series, which achieves the effect of space vector control. At the same time, the control method is simplified. In view of the imbalance of the midpoint potential of DC busbar, the balance of positive and negative voltage of DC bus is dynamically adjusted by adding the difference of midpoint potential to the reference voltage of the current loop. Because the system has no center line and can not directly sample the phase voltage, this paper obtains each phase voltage by sampling the voltage between the input terminal and the midpoint of the DC bus, and obtains each phase voltage by the improved control algorithm, which simplifies the hardware circuit. The simulation model of the system is built in Matlab, and the simulation results verify the correctness of the theoretical analysis. Finally, an experimental prototype based on DSP control is designed. The experimental results show that the topology has the advantages of good power quality, low harmonic content and dynamic adjustment of DC bus neutral balance under the control of carrier phase shift control strategy.
【学位授予单位】:哈尔滨工业大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2014
【分类号】:TM461;U469.72

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