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永磁直驱风力发电机组模拟系统的研究

发布时间:2019-04-15 13:10  文章来源:笔耕文化传播
【摘要】:当前社会,环境污染和能源短缺两大问题越来越受到关注。太阳能、风能、水能等技术的发展成为世界各国关注的焦点。作为一种洁净的、可持续利用的再生能源,风能的开发潜能巨大,有利于缓解当前的能源短缺局势。 直驱式永磁同步风电系统,省去齿轮箱,风力机与发电机直接相连接,使机组的性能大大改善,系统效率也提到了提高。发电机与电网通过变流器隔离,有利于提高机组的低电压穿越性能。本文以直驱式永磁同步风力发电机组模拟系统为研究对象,从仿真到实验、从理论到实践进行了较为全面的深入研究。 论文首先对风力机的空气动力学原理进行了介绍,描述了风力机通过风的作用拖动发电机的过程,详细介绍了本文所采用的最大风能跟踪原理,并以此为基础建立了风力机的仿真模型。 其次,基于直驱型永磁同步风力发电系统的工作理论,设计了背靠背双PWM变流器的控制策略,并设计了一种三相电压软件锁相环,通过Matlab/Simulink仿真验证了风能最大功率追踪控制和双PWM变流器控制策略的正确性和有效性。 再次,针对电网三相电压对称跌落的工况,分析了直驱型永磁风电系统应用比较广泛的几种低电压穿越保护方案,对比分析后采用了直流侧带有卸荷电路的低电压穿越保护方案,分析了卸荷电阻参数的选取原则及卸荷电阻的投切策略,并在Matlab/Simulink里搭建了仿真模型,仿真结果验证了该方案的简单有效性。 最后本文设计了功能完整、上位机界面友好的7.5kW永磁直驱风力发电模拟系统平台。为了解决在实验室环境中如何模拟风电现场的原动机问题,本文使用异步电动机配合具有直接转矩控制算法的变频器来模拟风力机的方法;详尽地介绍了永磁发电机机侧变流器的转子磁链定向控制和网侧变流器的电网电压定向控制系统的实现。采取了在直流母线侧增加卸荷电路以在网侧电压跌落故障时消耗掉直流侧堆积的能量,来提高直驱型风电模拟系统的故障穿越性能。设计了基于LabView的上位机监控系统,易于模拟系统各部分的操作控制与运行结果展示。进行了较为充分的实验研究,给出了可信的实验结果,实现了永磁直驱风力发电机组模拟系统从理论到实践的研究。
[Abstract]:At present, environmental pollution and energy shortage are getting more and more attention. The development of solar energy, wind energy, water energy and other technologies has become the focus of attention all over the world. As a clean and sustainable renewable energy, wind energy has great potential to develop, which is helpful to alleviate the current situation of energy shortage. The direct drive permanent magnet synchronous wind power system saves the gearbox, and the wind turbine is connected with the generator directly. The performance of the unit is greatly improved, and the efficiency of the system is also raised. The generator is isolated from the power grid by converter, which is beneficial to improve the low voltage traversal performance of the unit. In this paper, direct-drive permanent magnet synchronous wind turbine simulation system as the object of study, from the simulation to the experiment, from the theory to the practice of a more comprehensive and in-depth research. Firstly, the aerodynamics principle of wind turbine is introduced, the process of wind turbine driving generator through wind is described, and the maximum wind energy tracking principle used in this paper is introduced in detail. Based on this, the simulation model of wind turbine is established. Secondly, based on the working theory of direct-drive permanent magnet synchronous wind power generation system, the control strategy of back-to-back dual PWM converter is designed, and a three-phase voltage software phase-locked loop is designed. The correctness and effectiveness of wind energy maximum power tracking control and double PWM converter control strategy are verified by Matlab/Simulink simulation. Thirdly, several low-voltage traversing protection schemes which are widely used in direct-drive permanent magnet wind power system are analyzed in view of the symmetrical sag of three-phase voltage in power grid. After the comparative analysis, the low voltage traverse protection scheme with DC side unloading circuit is adopted. The selection principle of unloading resistance parameter and the switching strategy of unloading resistance are analyzed, and the simulation model is built in Matlab/Simulink. The simulation results show that the scheme is simple and effective. Finally, a simulation system platform of 7.5kW permanent magnet direct drive wind power generation is designed, which has complete function and friendly interface of host computer. In order to solve the problem of how to simulate wind turbine in laboratory environment, this paper uses asynchronous motor with frequency converter with direct torque control algorithm to simulate wind turbine. In this paper, the rotor flux-oriented control of permanent magnet generator side converter and the realization of grid-side converter power network voltage orientation control system are introduced in detail. In order to improve the fault traversal performance of the direct-drive wind power simulation system, a load-unloading circuit is added to the DC bus side to consume the accumulated energy of the DC side when the voltage sags down on the grid side. The monitoring system of upper computer based on LabView is designed, which is easy to simulate the operation control and running results of each part of the system. The simulation system of permanent magnet direct-drive wind turbine is studied from theory to practice by means of sufficient experimental research and credible experimental results.
【学位授予单位】:北京交通大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2014
【分类号】:TM315

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