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大跨度桥式起重设备结构静动态特性分析研究

发布时间:2019-04-16 00:02
【摘要】:桥式起重机是我国国民经济发展必不可少的设备,其工作时承受机械动载荷,对结构系统产生冲击与振动。在其长期影响下会造成主梁结构的疲劳破坏,同时,结构的这种振动对工作人员与测量设备也是不利的。因此,对桥式起重机进行动态特性研究已成为该设计领域的研究重点。 本文以西安神力起重机厂生产的大跨度桥式起重机产品为研究对象,,基于起重机械动力学分析理论和有限元计算方法,以计算机辅助有限元(CAFEA)分析软件ANSYS为平台,实现了对桥式起重设备在最典型工况下箱形主梁的静力学分析和模态分析,得到的分析数据和结果对桥式起重机动态设计提供了一定的理论方法,论文的主要内容包括: 1、运用经典力学计算方法将桥式起重设备简化为简支梁结构,对其进行结构计算,以对典型工况下主梁结构的强度与应力进行校核,为后续的有限元分析提供比较可靠的参考和比较。 2、根据桥式起重设备主梁结构的特点,对主梁结构作适当简化,运用有限元分析软件ANSYS建立能反映实际情况的有限元计算模型,确定行车主梁结构的工况与载荷,对结构进行静力学分析,得到了静态工况下的位移和应力分布规律,并与理论计算结果进行对比,验证其正确性。 3、在结构静力学分析的基础上,对行车箱形主梁翼缘板结构提出了改进方案,减少主梁材料14%左右,从而有效地减轻了主梁的自重,提高了经济效益。 4、对桥式起重设备主梁结构进行模态分析,得到模型的前四阶固有频率、振型以及动刚度等动态特性;并讨论了小车位置、起升载荷、小车质量等结构参数对桥式起重设备自振频率的影响。 总之,本文对桥式起重设备的动静态特性进行了分析,并提出了主梁结构改进方案,其分析方法与结果不仅为桥式起重设备的安全运行提供了较可靠的理论依据,而且为桥式起重机主梁结构的设计提供了有意义的参考。
[Abstract]:Bridge crane is an indispensable equipment for the development of national economy in our country. When it works, it bears the mechanical dynamic load and produces shock and vibration to the structural system. Under the long-term influence, the fatigue failure of the main beam structure will be caused. At the same time, the vibration of the structure will also be disadvantageous to the staff and the measuring equipment. Therefore, the research on dynamic characteristics of overhead crane has become the research focus in this field. Based on the dynamic analysis theory of lifting machinery and the finite element calculation method, this paper takes the large span overhead crane products produced in Xi'an Shenli Crane Factory as the research object, and takes the computer-aided finite element (CAFEA) analysis software ANSYS as the platform, and makes the computer-aided finite element analysis software ANSYS as the platform. The statics analysis and modal analysis of the box girder under the most typical working conditions are realized. The obtained analysis data and results provide a certain theoretical method for the dynamic design of the bridge crane. The main contents of this paper are as follows: 1. The bridge lifting equipment is simplified to simply supported beam structure by using the classical mechanical calculation method, and the structural calculation is carried out to check the strength and stress of the main beam structure under typical working conditions. It provides a reliable reference and comparison for the subsequent finite element analysis. 2According to the characteristics of the main beam structure of the bridge crane, the main beam structure is properly simplified, and the finite element calculation model which can reflect the actual situation is established by using the finite element analysis software ANSYS to determine the working condition and the load of the main beam structure of the driving vehicle. The static analysis of the structure is carried out, and the distribution of displacement and stress under static conditions is obtained, and the results are compared with the theoretical results to verify its correctness. 3. On the basis of statics analysis of the structure, an improved scheme is put forward to reduce the material of the main beam by about 14%, which can effectively reduce the weight of the main beam and increase the economic benefit. 4. The first four order natural frequency, mode shape and dynamic stiffness of the model are obtained by modal analysis of the main beam structure of bridge lifting equipment. The influence of the structure parameters such as the position of the car, the lifting load and the mass of the car on the natural frequency of the bridge lifting equipment is also discussed. In a word, the dynamic and static characteristics of bridge lifting equipment are analyzed, and the improvement scheme of main beam structure is put forward. The analytical methods and results not only provide a reliable theoretical basis for the safe operation of bridge lifting equipment, but also provide a reliable theoretical basis for the safe operation of bridge lifting equipment. It also provides a meaningful reference for the design of bridge crane girder structure.
【学位授予单位】:长安大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2012
【分类号】:TH215

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