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鸡粪与稻壳堆肥影响因素的研究

发布时间:2019-01-12 16:41  文章来源:笔耕文化传播
【摘要】:我国作为世界上最大的稻谷生产地之一,稻谷的年产量约为1.2×108-1.9×108吨,稻壳作为谷物加工的主要副产品之一,占稻谷子粒质量的20%左右[1]。于是,稻壳作为一种逐渐得到关注的产量大且成本颇低的可再生资源。另一方面,鸡粪不经处理直接施用问题较多,鸡粪中含有大量病原菌,是病毒传播渠道之一,也容易招引地下害虫,同时鸡粪堆肥作为一种农家肥料存在着发酵周期长、氮素损失较为严重且容易产生恶臭等诸多问题。鉴于此,本试验以稻壳和鸡粪为研究材料,通过不同初始C/N、含水率和pH这三个堆肥影响因素进行堆肥试验,筛选出适宜稻壳与鸡粪堆肥配比范围。再通过添加过磷酸钙、沸石、活性炭和菌剂进行堆肥试验,筛选出最佳调理剂,为稻壳堆肥资源化利用提供科学依据和技术指导。1.在研究初始C/N对鸡粪与稻壳堆肥腐熟度影响时,设置了5个处理,其初始碳氮比分别为15、20、25、30和35。结果表明堆肥时C/N为20时,升温最快,堆体大于50℃的高温持续时间最长,为7 d。与我国制定的《粪便无害化卫生标准(GB7959-87)》中,在堆肥进程的中堆体温度需达到50~55℃以上并且持续5~7d的要求相符[2]。种子发芽指数为91%,达到完全腐熟标准。所以鸡粪与稻壳堆肥时C/N为20时,较为适宜。2.在研究初始含水率对鸡粪与稻壳堆肥腐熟的影响时,水率为60%时,堆体升温最快,堆肥的第3d便进入了高温阶段。且高温持续时间最长,达到5天。到达我国《粪便无害化卫生标准(GB7959-87)》的明确要求,全碳降低率最大。全氮含量增加率也最高,氮素损失低于其他处理。EC值最小,对植物抑制作用最小。种子发芽指数为89%,表明堆肥已完全腐熟。所以鸡粪与稻壳堆肥时含水率控制在60%,较为适宜。3.在研究初始pH对鸡粪与稻壳堆肥腐熟的影响时,pH8的处理高温持续5天。与我国《粪便无害化卫生标准(GB7959-87)》相吻合,在堆肥停止时p H为8的处理p H到达8.6,符合腐熟堆肥pH,有机质降解率最高,全氮含量增加率也最高,氮素损失低于其他处理。EC值最小,对植物抑制作用最小。种子发芽指数为91%,表明堆肥已完全腐熟。所以鸡粪与稻壳堆肥时pH控制在8.24左右,较为适宜。4.在研究添加不同调理剂对鸡粪与稻壳堆肥腐熟度影响时,添加菌剂的处理升温快,高温持续时间长,种子发芽指数最高,控制氮素损失最高,在堆肥第27d已完全腐熟。所以添加菌剂进行堆肥,不但可以获得品质更好的堆肥产品,还可以缩短堆肥时间,减少氮素损失。
[Abstract]:As one of the largest paddy production places in the world, the annual output of rice in China is about 1.2 脳 108-1.9 脳 108 tons. As one of the main byproducts of grain processing, rice husk accounts for about 20% of the grain mass. As a result, rice husk is a renewable resource with high yield and low cost. On the other hand, there are many problems in direct application of chicken manure without treatment. Chicken manure contains a large number of pathogenic bacteria, which is one of the transmission channels of virus, and it is easy to attract underground pests. Meanwhile, as a kind of farm manure, chicken manure compost has a long fermentation period. Nitrogen loss is more serious and easy to produce stench and many other problems. In view of this, using rice husk and chicken dung as the research materials, the composting experiment was carried out with different initial C / N, moisture content and pH, and the suitable composting ratio range of rice husk and chicken manure was selected. By adding calcium superphosphate, zeolite, activated carbon and fungicides to compost, the optimum conditioning agent was screened out, which provided scientific basis and technical guidance for the utilization of rice husk compost. 1. In order to study the effect of initial C / N on composting maturity of chicken manure and rice husk, five treatments were set up, and the initial C / N ratios were 15 ~ 20 ~ 2530 and 35 ~ 35 respectively. The results showed that C / N was 20:00 and the heating-up was the fastest when compost temperature was higher than 50 鈩,

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