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中美导淮事业的历史进程与影响(1911-1927)

发布时间:2019-01-11 10:04  文章来源:笔耕文化传播
【摘要】:自南宋建炎二年(1128年),东京留守杜充决黄河入淮以阻挡金兵南下,黄河南泛频仍。特别是明清之际,受国家治水政策的偏向与地区冲突的影响,淮河流域水患频繁。伴随着近代内忧外患的历史背景,淮河水灾尤甚,导淮工程迫在眉睫。以张謇为代表的开明官绅极为重视此事,奔走呼号,但当时国家财政困难,加之这一地区本就被视为"局部"地区,故而更难得到官方之重视。但张謇等两淮名士另辟蹊径,倡言利用外资以导淮。美国不同类型的机构对与中国合作兴办导淮工程兴趣浓厚,共同的利益契合推动了中美导淮事业的发展。捷足先登的即是美国在华红十字会。美国在华红十字会长期热心慈善事业,赢得了普遍的舆论好感。其于1911年派工程师詹美森考察淮河,开始介入导淮事业。1913年芮恩施任驻华公使,积极推动中美两国的沟通、合作。在中美的共同努力下,双方于1914年签订了《导淮借款草约》。草约签订后,美国红十字会工程团来华测量、考察淮河,并提出"全部入江"的导淮方略。一战爆发后,美国红十字会陷入资金困境,无力继续与华合作导淮。1916年,继红十字会后,美国广益公司开始参与到导淮计划之中,并承办运河借款。但这一举动威胁到日本在这一区域的既得利益,从而遭到日本的强烈反对。美国从自身利益出发,为了保护其在远东的殖民地,与日本妥协。广益公司的计划遂告流产。1922年以美国为主导的华洋义赈会在华成立导淮委员会,对导淮事业不遗余力地进行舆论宣传。同年,美国工程师费礼门提出"全部入海"的导淮方略,1924年广益公司与齐燮元磋议继续办理导淮借款,但类似的计划与措施遭到地方绅民的反对。此后,导淮事业逐渐衰微。十余年的中美合作导淮事业何以失败而告终,这主要归因于近代中国复杂的社会环境与地区间的利益博弈。1911-1927年中国军阀混战,匪患猖獗,社会动乱,不能为导淮工程提供安定的环境。淮河流经苏皖鲁豫四省,导淮工程需要四省的合作。但此时的中国,中央式微,事权不统,地方各自为政,四省权利集团从自身的利益出发,在导淮问题上难以步调一致。而中美双方相关负责人在导淮具体事务中的冲突则进一步阻碍了这一事业的发展。即便这项事业最终以失败告终,但它同样具有积极的历史意义。在中美合作导淮期间,中国引进了美国的先进课程和水利技术,开创了近代水利教育。在中美导淮借款的不断交涉中,对吸引和使用外国资本修建公益工程设施的艰巨性和复杂性有更加深刻的认识。美国资本参与的导淮事业虽然最后未能付诸实践,但前期的勘察成果、设计方案等对于此后的淮河治理工程具有一定的参考借鉴价值。
[Abstract]:From the Southern Song Dynasty to the second year of inflammation (1128), Tokyo left behind du Chong decided to enter the Huai River to block the south of the Yellow River, the South Yellow River frequent. Especially during the Ming and Qing dynasties, the Huaihe River Basin was affected frequently by the deviation of the national water control policy and the regional conflicts. With the historical background of internal and external troubles in modern times, the Huaihe River flood is especially serious, and the Huaihe River guiding project is imminent. The enlightened officials and gentry, represented by Zhang Jian, attached great importance to the matter and called for it, but at that time the national financial difficulties and the fact that the region was already regarded as a "local" region made it even more difficult to get official attention. But Zhang Jian and so on Huai famous person to seek another path, advocates the utilization foreign capital to guide Huaihe. Different types of institutions in the United States have a strong interest in cooperating with China in guiding the Huaihe River Project, and the common interests have promoted the development of China's guiding Huaihe River Project. It was the American Red Cross in China that got ahead of it. The American Red Cross Society in China has long been enthusiastic about philanthropy and has won popular opinion. In 1911, he sent an engineer, Jameson, to study the Huaihe River and began to intervene in the cause of guiding the Huaihe River. In 1913, Ruinshi served as Minister to China, actively promoting communication and cooperation between China and the United States. With the joint efforts of China and the United States, the two sides signed the guiding Huai loan contract in 1914. After the signing of the contract, the American Red Cross Engineering Group came to China to survey and inspect the Huaihe River, and put forward the guiding strategy of "all entering the River". After the outbreak of World War I, the American Red Cross fell into financial difficulties and was unable to continue to work with China to guide Huai. In 1916, after the Red Cross Society, the American Guangyi Company began to participate in the project of guiding Huaihe River and undertook loans through the canal. But the move threatened Japan's vested interests in the region and was strongly opposed by Japan. In its own interest, the United States compromised with Japan in order to protect its colonies in the far East. The plan of Guang Yi Company was aborted. In 1922, the China International Relief Committee, led by the United States, set up a guiding committee in China, sparing no effort in publicizing the cause of guiding Huaihe River. In the same year, American engineer Flemen put forward the strategy of "all entering the sea". In 1924, Guangyi Company and Qi Xieyuan discussed how to continue to borrow money from Huai River. However, similar plans and measures were opposed by local gentry and people. Since then, the cause of guiding the Huaihe River gradually declined. Why the Sino-American cooperation in guiding the Huaihe River project ended in failure in more than a decade was mainly due to the complicated social environment in modern China and the interest game between the regions. In 1911-1927, China's warlords fought indiscriminately, the bandits were rampant, and the society was in turmoil. It can not provide a stable environment for Huaihe River project. Huaihe River flows through the four provinces of Jiangsu, Anhui, Shandong and Henan, and the project of guiding the Huaihe River requires the cooperation of the four provinces. But at this time in China, the central government is declining, the power is not unified, and the local governments are doing their own work, so the four provincial rights groups are unable to keep pace with each other on the issue of guiding the Huai River from their own interests. The conflict between China and the United States on specific issues further hindered the development of the cause. Even if the cause ends in failure, it is also positive and historic. During the period of Sino-American cooperation, China introduced American advanced curriculum and water conservancy technology, and initiated modern water conservancy education. In the continuous negotiation between China and the United States, we have a deeper understanding of the difficulty and complexity of attracting and using foreign capital to build public works facilities. Although the project of guiding Huaihe River in which American capital participated failed to be put into practice at last, the preliminary survey results and design schemes had certain reference value for the future Huaihe River harnessing project.
【学位授予单位】:安徽大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2017
【分类号】:K207;K712.5;TV882.3

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