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双足压电作动器的研究及其在二维平台中的应用

发布时间:2019-01-05 20:54  文章来源:笔耕文化传播
【摘要】:近些年来,光电技术、精密制造加工、纳米科学、航宇工程等领域对精密定位技术提出了越来越高的要求,如需要亚微米或纳米级的定位分辨率,精细的运动控制等。非共振式压电直线作动器具有精度高、响应快、可自锁等特点,有望应用于新型精密运动平台的作动之中。本文研究的双足压电直线作动器,是以压电叠堆为作动单元的一种非共振式作动器,在大行程下依然具有精度高、响应快、推力大的特点,应用于精密二维运动平台时具有较大的优势。本文的主要研究内容如下:介绍了压电精密运动平台的应用背景及其特点,概述了压电作动技术的研究现状;比较了共振与非共振式作动技术,归纳了以压电叠堆为作动单元的非共振式作动器的特点。介绍了压电元件的特点及结构,总结了其使用方法与注意事项;考虑到压电输出对外加压力的敏感性,对两种压电叠堆做了预紧力标定实验;研究了两种压电叠堆的动态特性,获得了不同预紧力下二者的激励电压、频率与输出振幅的关系。根据对单、双足压电作动原理的比较及三相、四相驱动的分析,设计了双足对称式三相驱动压电作动器并制作了样机;根据实验结果及分析,对作动器进行了改进;实验表明改进型作动器具有更稳定的性能、更大的推力。以新型压电作动器为作动单元,设计了精密二维平台的机械结构并制作了样机;通过实验测试了平台性能,表明二层平台对底层的输出特性影响较小;平台的定位分辨率可达4.2μm(连续步进模式)、0.1μm(单步驱动模式),表明该平台可实现较高精度的作动。
[Abstract]:In recent years, photoelectric technology, precision manufacturing and processing, nanoscience, aerospace engineering and other fields have put forward more and more high requirements for precision positioning technology, such as sub-micron or nano-scale positioning resolution, fine motion control and so on. Non-resonant piezoelectric linear actuator has the advantages of high precision, fast response and self-locking, so it is expected to be used in the actuation of a new precision motion platform. The biped piezoelectric linear actuator studied in this paper is a kind of non-resonant actuator with piezoelectric stack as the actuator. It still has the characteristics of high precision, fast response and large thrust under the large stroke. It has a great advantage when it is applied to the precision two-dimensional motion platform. The main contents of this paper are as follows: the application background and characteristics of piezoelectric precision motion platform are introduced, and the research status of piezoelectric actuation technology is summarized. The resonant and non-resonant actuators are compared, and the characteristics of non-resonant actuators with piezoelectric stack as actuators are summarized. In this paper, the characteristics and structure of piezoelectric elements are introduced, the usage methods and precautions are summarized, and the pretightening force calibration experiments for two kinds of piezoelectric stack are carried out considering the sensitivity of piezoelectric output to external pressure. The dynamic characteristics of two kinds of piezoelectric stack are studied, and the relationship between the excitation voltage, frequency and output amplitude is obtained under different preloading forces. According to the comparison of single and biped piezoelectric actuation principle and the analysis of three-phase and four-phase drive, a biped symmetrical three-phase piezoelectric actuator is designed and a prototype is made, and the actuator is improved according to the experimental results and analysis. The experimental results show that the improved actuator has more stable performance and greater thrust. The mechanical structure of the precision two-dimensional platform is designed and a prototype is made with the new piezoelectric actuator as the actuator, and the performance of the platform is tested by experiments, which shows that the two-layer platform has little effect on the output characteristics of the bottom layer. The positioning resolution of the platform can reach 4.2 渭 m (continuous step mode) and 0.1 渭 m (single step drive mode), which indicates that the platform can achieve high precision actuation.
【学位授予单位】:南京航空航天大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2016
【分类号】:TH703

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