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全国农村水资源保护类型区划分

发布时间:2018-10-11 20:11  文章来源:笔耕文化传播
【摘要】:农村水资源保护区划是在我国农村地区水质变差,水资源遭受破坏的情况下,基于农村水资源保护共性技术提出的。随着我国点源污染逐渐得到控制,非点源污染逐渐成为地表水污染的主要原因,目前我国地表水环境非点源污染问题已十分严重,而其主要污染来源于农业化肥、畜禽养殖、农村生活等农业非点源排放的氮、磷物质,导致我国很多水体面临富营养化等环境问题。由于受地形条件、气候状况、水文条件、植被覆盖、土地利用等多种因素的影响,农业非点源污染呈现明显的空间不平衡性,且污染负荷空间差异性较大,从而导致各地区面临的主要挑战和需要优先解决的问题有所不同。因此,在进行农村水资源保护前需首先识别污染类型,并判别其污染高负荷区,从而可以提高农村水资源保护的针对性。基于此,本研究在充分认识农村水资源保护区划的定义,结合国内外区划的相关研究的方法,并在阅读大量国内有关非点源污染的相关研究的基础之上,提出本区划的原则和方法体系,确定各污染源的排污系数、流失系数等相关参数,并利用地理信息系统(ArcGIS),以全国359个地区级行政单元(不含港、澳、台地区)为研究对象,采用清单分析法核算各污染物的排放量,划分全国农村地区水资源保护类型区。其划分结果如下: (1)全国农村水资源保护类型区划采用3级分区体系,一级分区在我国三大自然分区的基础之上,以“秦岭—淮河”一线将东部季风区划分成南部季风区及北部季风区,加上原来的西北干旱区、青藏高寒区,而形成4个一级分区。 (2)二级分区依据各污染源排放污染物的等标污染负荷比,采取系统聚类的方法,将我国分为畜禽污染、农业污染、农业畜禽污染、农业生活污染、农业畜禽生活污染等5种类型,并与一级分区叠加形成13个二级分区。 (3)三级分区通过计算各污染物(COD、TN、TP)的内梅罗综合指数,并依据敏感分级标准划分微度、轻度、中度、高度及极度污染5个强度级别,并与二级分区叠加得到52个三级分区。同时针对分区结果,提出不同农村水资源保护类型区水资源保护对策及措施。
[Abstract]:The regionalization of rural water resources protection is put forward based on the common technology of rural water resources protection under the condition of the deterioration of water quality and the destruction of water resources in rural areas of China. With the control of point source pollution in China, non-point source pollution has gradually become the main cause of surface water pollution. At present, the problem of non-point source pollution of surface water environment in China is very serious, and the main pollution comes from agricultural fertilizer, livestock and poultry breeding. Agricultural non-point source emissions of nitrogen and phosphorus in rural areas lead to eutrophication and other environmental problems in many water bodies in China. Due to the influence of many factors, such as topography, climate, hydrology, vegetation cover, land use and so on, agricultural non-point source pollution presents obvious spatial imbalance, and the spatial difference of pollution load is great. As a result, the major challenges and priority issues facing different regions differ. Therefore, before carrying on the rural water resources protection, we should first identify the pollution types and distinguish the high pollution load areas, so as to improve the pertinence of the rural water resources protection. Based on this, this study is based on a full understanding of the definition of rural water resources protection zoning, combined with the relevant research methods at home and abroad, and on the basis of reading a large number of domestic related studies on non-point source pollution. This paper puts forward the principle and method system of the regionalization, determines the discharge coefficient, loss coefficient and other related parameters of each pollution source, and takes the 359-district administrative unit (excluding Hong Kong, Macao, Taiwan) as the research object by using (ArcGIS),. The inventory analysis method was used to calculate the discharge of pollutants and to divide the water resources protection areas in rural areas of China. The results are as follows: (1) the division of rural water resources protection type in China is divided into three levels, which are based on the three natural zones in China. On the "Qinling-Huaihe" front line, the eastern monsoon region is divided into the southern monsoon region and the northern monsoon region, plus the original northwest arid region, the Qinghai-Tibet high and cold region. Four first class zones were formed. (2) according to the iso-standard pollution load ratio of pollutants discharged from various pollution sources, the second division was divided into livestock and poultry pollution, agricultural livestock and poultry pollution by the method of systematic clustering. Five types of agricultural pollution, agricultural livestock and poultry pollution, were superimposed into 13 secondary subzones. (3) by calculating the Nemero comprehensive index of each pollutant (COD,TN,TP), the third division was divided into three subdivisions. According to the sensitive grading standard, 5 intensity levels were classified as micro-degree, mild, moderate, high and extreme pollution, and 52 third-grade zones were obtained by superposing with the second-grade classification. At the same time, the countermeasures and measures of water resources protection in different types of rural water resources protection areas are put forward.
【学位授予单位】:北京林业大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2014
【分类号】:X52;F323.213

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