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洪泽湖渔业资源现状、问题及对策

发布时间:2019-01-01 20:20  文章来源:笔耕文化传播
【摘要】:本文是在洪泽湖历史资料的基础上,通过对洪泽湖浮游生物、底栖动物、水生植物和鱼类等资源现状调查,根据相关资料分析了洪泽湖渔业资源及管理上存在的问题,并提出解决问题的对策和建议。洪泽湖是中国第四大淡水湖泊,江苏省第二大湖,是我国五大淡水湖泊中最年轻的一个。它位于淮河中游、江苏省西北部;跨洪泽、泗阳、泗洪、盱眙、淮阴和宿城六县(区)。介于东经118°10'-118°52',北纬33°06'—33°40'之间,它西纳淮河、南注长江、东通黄海、北连沂沭,是"南水北调"东线工程的过水通道,对流域防洪削峰、水资源余缺调节、水产捕捞养殖和致富湖区渔(农)民起着十分重要的作用。洪泽湖生物资源量大,浮游植物、浮游动物以及底栖动物,作为水生生态系统的重要环节,既是洪泽湖鱼类的生物饵料资源,又是水域营养状态的重要指标,受到许多科学工作者的重视。根据资源调查结果,参照国内外湖泊生物生产力的统算方法及食物网关系,推算出本年度洪泽湖的渔产潜力为:浮游植物食性渔产潜力约7543吨,浮游动物食性渔产潜力约9678吨,底栖食性渔产潜力约8122吨。但由于过度捕捞、环境污染、非法采砂等因素的影响,导致洪泽湖渔业环境水质状况每况愈下,富营养化程度逐渐加剧、生物资源总量下降,品种结构发生改变、鱼类群落生物多样性降低和鱼类资源小型化、低龄化。对现有渔业产业规模、结构等严格控制,压缩养殖面积,控制捕捞产量,改良水产养殖方式,监控养殖用水排放,补充增加必要的人工治理措施,帮助湖泊实现生态的自我修复,加强生态保护相关领域的基础调查、监测、评价能力建设。本文对洪泽湖渔业资源管理提出以下建议:一是科学编制并贯彻实施养殖规划,促进湖泊渔业可持续发展;二是适当降低湖泊渔业生产总量;三是保护渔业生态环境,开展治理修复;四是科学选择增殖放流对象,修复渔业生态环境;五是打击非法采砂。洪泽湖作为淮宿两市的母亲湖,是淮宿两市一千多万人口生存和发展的生命湖,要在环保优先的前提下重新审视渔业目标和思路,促进洪泽湖人、渔、鱼、水和生态环境和谐发展。
[Abstract]:Based on the historical data of Hongze Lake, the present situation of plankton, benthos, aquatic plants and fish resources in Hongze Lake is investigated, and the problems in fishery resources and management of Hongze Lake are analyzed. The countermeasures and suggestions to solve the problem are put forward. Hongze Lake, the fourth largest freshwater lake in China and the second largest lake in Jiangsu Province, is the youngest of the five freshwater lakes in China. It is located in the middle reaches of the Huaihe River, northwest Jiangsu Province; cross Hongze, Siyang, Sihong, Xuyi, Huaiyin and Cecheng six counties (districts). Between longitude 118 掳10- 118 掳52 'east and latitude 33 掳060-33 掳40'north, it is located in the Xinahuai River, the Yangtze River in the south, Huang Hai in the east, and Lianshu in the north. It is the crossing channel of the Eastern Route of "South-to-North Water transfer", which regulates the flood control and peak control of the basin and the remaining and lacking water resources. Aquaculture and rich lake area fishing (agriculture) people play a very important role. As an important link of aquatic ecosystem, Hongze Lake is not only a biological feed resource for fish, but also an important indicator of the nutrient status of the water area, because of its large amount of biological resources, phytoplankton, zoobenthos and zooplankton. Be valued by many scientists. According to the results of resource survey, the potential of phytoplankton and zooplankton carnivorous fishery was estimated to be about 7543 tons and 9678 tons respectively, according to the methods of calculation and food net relationship of lake biological productivity at home and abroad, and the potential of fishery production of Hongze Lake in the current year was estimated as follows: the potential of phytoplankton carnivorous fishery was about 7543 tons. The potential of benthic fodder fishery is about 8122 tons. However, due to the influence of overfishing, environmental pollution, illegal sand mining and other factors, the environmental water quality of Hongze Lake fishery is deteriorating, the eutrophication level is gradually increasing, the total amount of biological resources is decreasing, and the variety structure has changed. Fish community biodiversity decreased and fish resources miniaturized, younger age. To strictly control the scale and structure of the existing fishery industry, reduce the area of aquaculture, control fishing output, improve the way of aquaculture, monitor and control the discharge of aquaculture water, and supplement and increase the necessary artificial control measures, To help lakes achieve ecological self-restoration, strengthen the basic investigation, monitoring and evaluation of ecological protection related areas of capacity building. This paper puts forward the following suggestions for the management of fishery resources in Hongze Lake: first, scientifically compiling and carrying out the breeding plan to promote the sustainable development of lake fishery; The third is to protect the fishery ecological environment and to carry out remediation; the fourth is to scientifically select the proliferating and releasing objects to repair the fishery ecological environment; and the fifth is to crack down on illegal sand mining. Hongze Lake, as the mother lake of Huai Su City, is the life lake for the survival and development of more than 10 million people in Huai Su City. It is necessary to re-examine the fishery objectives and ideas under the premise of giving priority to environmental protection, so as to promote Hongze Lake people, fish, and fish. Water and ecological environment develop harmoniously.
【学位授予单位】:南京农业大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2015
【分类号】:S931;F326.4

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