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论西方国家的政府再造及其启示和借鉴

发布时间:2019-01-12 19:23  文章来源:笔耕文化传播
【摘要】:20世纪80年代以后,为迎接全球化、信息化、国际竞争加剧的挑战以及摆脱财政困境和提高政府效率,西方各国相继掀起了政府再造的热潮,采取了一系列改革的战略和战术。这场改革使支配了20世纪大部分时光的传统的公共行政模式向“管理主义”或“新公共管理”模式转变,如澳大利亚学者休斯在《公共管理导论》一书中所说:20世纪80年代中期以来,西方发达国家公共部门的管理方式已发生了变化,以官僚制为基础的传统行政管理模式正在转变为一种以市场为基础的新公共管理模式。 目前,我国正处于由计划经济体制向市场经济体制转轨的时期,市场经济的发展特别是加入WTO的现实,要求转变政府职能、规范政府行为,建立起一个灵活、高效、廉洁的政府,形成新的政府管理或治理模式。为了适应变化了的中国社会的需要,自20世纪80年代以来,中国共进行了四次较大规模的政府改革,即1982、1988、1992、1998的政府改革。通过这四次改革,政府职能有了较大转变,机关作风不断改善,机构设置相对精干,政府运作更加协调,办事效率有很大提高。但是,不可否认的是,同社会主义市场经济体制的要求相比,政府的行政管理体制仍存在许多亟待解决的问题:政府管制仍然较多,市场机制没有得到充分发挥;政府对经济领域的干预仍然较多;政府内部决策职能与执行职能不明确,致使一些部门忙于具体事务、疏于决策,重审批、轻监管,既当裁判员又当运动员,缺乏有效的制约机制;地方或部门利益观念强,公共意识和公共责任感不强,等等。为了解决这些问题,借鉴发达市场经济国家在公共管理及政府改革方面所取得的经验,无疑是一个不可忽视的重要方面。因此,研究西方国家政府再造的经验及其启示和借鉴,显然具有重要的理论价值和现实意义。 本文除导言外,主要分为三个部分。第一部分,提出当代西方政府再造的背景,即由于什么原因引起西方政府再造。在大量文献研究的基础上,认为引起当代西方政府再造主要原因包括:“行政国家”出现所带来的种种问题;政
[Abstract]:Since the 1980s, in order to meet the challenges of globalization, information technology, international competition, and to get rid of the financial predicament and improve the efficiency of government, the western countries have set off the upsurge of government reengineering one after another, and adopted a series of strategies and tactics of reform. The reform transformed the traditional public administration model that dominated most of the 20th century into "managementism" or "new public management". As the Australian scholar Hughes said in the introduction to Public Administration: since the mid-1980s, the management of the public sector in western developed countries has changed. The traditional administrative mode based on bureaucracy is changing into a new public management mode based on market. At present, our country is in the period of transition from the planned economy system to the market economy system. The development of the market economy, especially the reality of China's entry into WTO, requires the transformation of government functions, the standardization of government behavior, and the establishment of a flexible and efficient system. Clean government, form a new government management or governance model. In order to meet the needs of the changed Chinese society, since the 1980s, China has carried out four large-scale government reforms, that is, the government reform in 1982-1988 and 1992-1998. Through these four reforms, the functions of the government have been greatly changed, the work style of the organs has been continuously improved, the establishment of institutions has been relatively lean, the government operation has been more coordinated, and the efficiency of handling affairs has been greatly improved. However, it is undeniable that compared with the requirements of the socialist market economic system, there are still many problems to be solved urgently in the administrative system of the government: the government still has more control, and the market mechanism has not been brought into full play; Government intervention in the economic field remains high; The internal decision-making function and executive function of the government are not clear, which causes some departments to be busy with specific affairs, neglect decision-making, pay more attention to examination and approval, neglect supervision, be referees and athletes, and lack effective restriction mechanism; Local or departmental interest concept, public awareness and public responsibility is not strong, and so on. In order to solve these problems, learning from the experience of the developed market economy countries in public administration and government reform is undoubtedly an important aspect that can not be ignored. Therefore, it is of great theoretical value and practical significance to study the experience of government reconstruction in western countries and its enlightenment and reference. In addition to the introduction, this paper is mainly divided into three parts. The first part, put forward the background of the contemporary western government reengineering, that is, what cause the western government reengineering. On the basis of a large number of literature studies, it is considered that the main reasons for the reengineering of contemporary western governments include: the emergence of "administrative state" brought about by various problems;
【学位授予单位】:华中师范大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2005
【分类号】:D523

【引证文献】

相关硕士学位论文 前1条

1 梁菲;行政服务标准体系构建及应用研究[D];山东大学;2012年



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